Leonid Hurwicz

Profesor Leonid Hurwicz byl držitelem jednoho z rekordů – byl vůbec nejstarším člověkem, který kdy Nobelovu cenu získal – narodil se 21. srpna 1917 a bylo mu tedy úctyhodných 90 let. L. Hurwicz zemřel 24. 6. 2008 v Minneapolis v Minnesotě.

Místem, kde se narodil, byla Moskva. Hurwicz pocházel z polské židovské rodiny, která se do Ruska dostala pouze několik měsíců před vypuknutím bolševické revoluce v roce 1917. Všichni však brzy přesídlili zpět do Polska a vrátili se do Varšavy, kde L. Hurwicz studoval Varšavskou universitu a studium práv zde roku 1938 dokončil. V roce 1939 začal studovat na London School of Economics a posléze se dostal do švýcarské Ženevy. Počátkem 2. světové války se pak Hurwicz přemisťuje do Portugalska a posléze emigruje do Spojených států amerických, kde pokračuje ve studiích na Harvard University a University of Chicago.Titul doktora věd pak získává roku 1980 na Northwestern University.

Profesor Hurwicz byl ženatý (Evelyn, *31.10.1921) a životní radost mu přinášeli jeho čtyři potomci – Sarah, Michael, Ruth a Maxim.

Ve svém díle se Hurwicz zabýval především matematikou v souvislostech s ekonomií, modelováním a teorií firem. Ukazuje, jak ekonomické modely mohou být užitečné při rozboru takových systémů, jako jsou např. kapitalismus a socialismus.

Zastával např. funkci presidenta Econometric Society, byl členem National Academy of Science a American Academy of Arts and Science. Leonid Hurwicz byl kromě jiného držitelem šesti čestných doktorátů a dlouho působil v redakčních radách několika renomovaných odborných časopisů. Kromě jiného pracoval i v zemích Dálného východu – v Indonésii, Indii, Číně, Japonsku. Hurwicz působil v několika mezinárodních organizacích (např. OSN – 1948) a byl také konzultantem význačných organizací, jako např. RAND Corporation.

Za svou činnost obdržel mnoho význačných ocenění, např. v roce 1990 byl oceněn National Medal of Science. Cenu Švédské národní banky za ekonomii na památku Alfreda Nobela (Nobelovu cenu) dostal v roce 2007 spolu se svými pokračovateli E. Maskinem a R. Myersonem.

Knihy

HURWICZ, L., REITER, S. Designing economic mechanisms. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

ARROW, K. J., HURWICZ, L., UZAWA, H. Studies in linear and non-linear programming. Stanford University Press, 1958.

Články

HURWICZ, L. MARSCHAK, T. Comparing fine mechanisms. Economic Theory, 2003, vol. 21, no. 4, p. 783 – 842.

HURWICZ, L., MARSCHAK, T. Finite allocation mechanisms: approximate Walrasian versus approximate direct revelation. Economic Theory, 2003, vol. 21, no. 2-3, p. 543 – 573.

HURWICZ, L. Revisiting externalities. Journal of Public Economic Theory, 1999, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 225 – 245.

HURWICZ, L. What is the Coase theorem? Japan and the World Economy, 1995, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 49 – 74.

HURWICZ, L., WALKER, M. On the generic nonoptimality of dominant-strategy allocation mechanism: A general theorem that includes pure exchange economies. Econometrica, 1990, vol. 58, no. 3, p. 683 – 704.

HURWICZ, L., MARSCHAK, T. Approximating a function by choosing a covering of its domain and ? points from its range. Journal Complexity, 1988, vol. 4, p. 137 – 174.

HURWICZ, L., JORDAN, J., KANNAI, Y. On the demand generated by a smooth and concavifiable preference ordering. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 1987, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 169 – 190.

HURWICZ, L., MARSCHAK, T. Discrete allocation mechanisms: Dimensional requirements for resource-allocation mechanisms when desired outcomes are unbounded. Journal Complexity, 1985, vol. 1, no, 2, p. 264 – 303.

KIRZNER, I. M., HURWICZ, L. Economic planning and the knowledge problem comment. Cato Journal, 1984, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 407 – 426.

HURWICZ, L. On allocations attainable through Nash equilibria. Journal of Economic Theory, 1979, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 140 – 165.

HURWICZ, L. Outcome functions yielding Walrasian and Lindahl allocations at Nash equilibrium points. Review of Economic Studies, 1979, vol. 46, no. 2, p. 217 – 224.

HURWICZ, L., RICHTER, M. K. Ville axioms and consumer theory. Econometrica, 1979, vol. 47, no. 3, p. 603 – 619.

HURWICZ, L., SCHMEIDLER, D. Construction of outcome functions guaranteering existence and Pareto optimality of Nash equilibria. Econometrica, 1978, vol. 46, no. 6, p. 144 – 174.

HURWICZ, L., SHAPIRO, L. Incentive structures maximizing residual gain under incomplete information. The Bell Journal of Economics, 1978, vol.. 9, no. 1, p. 180 – 191.

HURWICZ, L., RADNER, R., REITER, S. A stochastic decentralized resource allocation process: Part I. Econometrica, 1975, vol. 43, no. 2, p. 187 – 221.

HURWICZ, L., RADNER, R., REITER, S. A stochastic decentralized resource allocation process: Part II. Econometrica, 1975, vol. 43, no. 3, p. 363 – 393.

HURWICZ, L., REITER, S. On the boundedness of the feasible set without convexity assumptions. International Economic Review, 1973, vol. 14, no. 3, p. 580 – 586.

HURWICZ, L. The design of mechanisms for resource allocation. American Economic Review, 1973, vol. 63, no. 2, p. 1 – 30.

HURWICZ, L. On the concept and possibility of informational decentralization. American Economic Review, 1969, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 513 – 524.

ARROW, K., HURWICZ, L. Competitive stability under weak gross substitutability: Nonlinear price adjustment and adaptive expectations. International Economic Review, 1962, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 233 – 255.

ARROW, K., HURWICZ, L. Competitive stability under weak gross substitutability: The „Euclidean distance“ approach. International Economic Review, 1960, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 38 – 49.

ARROW, K., HURWICZ, L. Some remarks on the equilibria of economic systems. Econometrica, 1960, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 640 – 646.

ARROW, K., HURWICZ, L. Stability of the gradient process in n-person games. Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1960, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 280 – 294.

ARROW, K., BLOCK, H. D., HURWICZ, L. On the stability of the competitive equilibrium, II. Econometrica, 1959, vol. 27, no. 1, p. 82 – 109.

ARROW, K., HURWICZ, L. On the stability of the competitive equilibrium, I. Econometrica, 1958, vol. 26, no. 4, p. 522 – 552.

ARROW, K., HURWICZ, L. Gradient methods for constrained maxima. Operations Research, 1957, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 258 – 265.

HURWICZ, L. Input-output analysis and economic structure. The American Economic Review, 1955, vol. 45, no. 4, p. 626 – 636.

HURWICZ, L. What has happened to the theory of games. The American Economic Review, 1953, vol. 43, no. 2, p. 398 – 405.

AMDERSON, T. W., HURWICZ, L. Errors and shocks in economic relationships. Econometrica. 1949, vol. 17, Supplement: Report of the Washington Meeting, p. 23 – 25.

HURWICZ, L. Some problems arising in estimating economic relations. Econometrica, 1947, vol. 15, no. 3, p. 236 – 240.

HURWICZ, L. Theory of the firm and of investment. Econometrica, 1946, vol. 42, no. 2, p. 109 – 136.

ROOS, C. F., HURWICZ, L., KOOPMANS, T., et al. Forecasting postwar demand: discussion. Econometrica, 1945, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 54 – 59.

HURWICZ, L. The theory of economic behavior. American Economic Review, 1945, vol. 35, no. 5, p. 909 – 925.

HURWICZ, L. Stochastic models of economic fluctuations, I: The problem. Econometrica, 1944, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 114 – 124.

Working papers, proceedings, přednášky, aj.

HURWICZ, L. Implementation with unknown endowments in a two-trader pure exchange economy. In Advances in Mathematical Economics. Edited by S. Kusuoka, A. Yamazaki, New York and Tokyo: Springer, 2006, p. 257- 271.

HURWICZ, L. Social absorption capability and economic development, In Social capability and long-term economic growth. Edited by B. H. Hoo, London: Macmillan, 1995.

HURWICZ, L., REITER, S. On the boundedness of the feasible set without convexity assumptions. Discussion Paper no. 2. Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science, 1972.

HURWICZ, L., ARROW, K. Reduction of constrained maxima to saddle-point problems. Proceedings of the Third Berkeley Symposium, 1956.

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Leonid Hurwicz