Thomas Crombie Schelling

Spoludržitelem Pamětní ceny Alfréda Nobela udělované Švédskou státní bankou se pro rok 2005 stal vedle profesora R. J. Aumanna nyní již více jak devadesátiletý (*14.4.1921, Oakland, CA) Američan Thomas Crombie Schelling, který působí na University of Maryland, USA, kde je profesorem na katedře ekonomie.

Schelling se ve svých pracích zabýval mj. například konflikty mezi státy, které mají možnost oba zbrojit či nezbrojit a závěry jeho prací ukázaly cestu pro řešení konfliktů a snahu vyhnout se válkám. Ve své oblasti, ve které se jedná o hraniční obor, do kterého se promítá psychologie, matematika, sociologie i některé biologické obory, je Schelling průkopníkem.

Kromě tohoto tématu se profesor Schelling v rámci ekonomické teorie zabývá i dalšími tématy, a to od ekologie (globální oteplování) až po organizovaný zločin.

Po studiích na University of California získal Schelling v roce 1951 doktorát na Harvard University. Již za dobu svých studií působil Schelling v americké administrativě. Pro Středoevropany může být zajímavé, že byl členem týmu, zabývajícím se naplňováním Marshallova plánu v Evropě a konečně se pohyboval i v okruhu úzkých spolupracovníků prezidenta Eisenhowera. Později po opuštění státních služeb se dal na akademickou dráhu, působil na Harvard University, kde má čestnou profesuru, a nyní přednáší na University of Maryland.

Životní oporou je nyní Schellingovi jeho druhá žena Alice M. Coleman Schelling. Z prvního manželství s Corrine Tigay Saposs má čtyři děti – syny Andrewa, Thomase, Daniela a Roberta.

Knihy

SCHELLING, T. C. Strategies of commitment and other essays. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.

SCHELLING, T. C. Micromotives and macrobehavior. W. W. Norton and Company, rev. ed. 2006.

Securing peace in the Middle East: Project on economic transitions. Edited by S. Fischer, L. J. Hausman, T. C. Schelling, et al., The MIT Press, 1994.

The western community and the Gorbachev challenge. Edited by A. Clesse, T. C. Schelling, Baden-Baden: Momos Publishing Co., 1989.

RAWLS, J., SEN, A., SCHELLING, T. C., et al. Liberty, equality, and the law: Selected tanner lectures on moral philosophy. University of Utah Press, 1987.

SCHELLING, T. C. Choice and consequence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.

Incentives for environmental protection. Edited by T. C. Schelling, The MIT Press, 1983.

SCHELLING, T. C. The termination of wars. Jerusalem: The Magnet Press, 1982.

SCHELLING, T. C. Thinking through the energy problem. Committee for Economic Development, 1979.

SCHELLING, T. C. Micromotives and macrobehavior. W. W. Norton and Company, 1978.

SCHELLING, T. C. Arms and influence. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966.

SCHELLING, T. C., HALPERIN, M. H. Strategy and arms control. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1961.

SCHELLING, T. C. The strategy of conflict. Oxford University Press, 1960.

SCHELLING, T. C. International economics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1958.

SCHELLING, T. C. National income bahavior: an introduction.to algebraic analysis. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., 1951.

Články

SCHELLING, T. C. Climate change: The uncertainties, the certainties and what they imply about action. The Economists, 2007, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 3.

SCHELLING, T. C. An astonishing sixty years: the legacy of Hiroshima. American Economic Review, Sept. 2006, vol. 96, no. 4, p. 929 – 937.

SCHELLING, T. C. Cost-benefit analysis: legal economic, and philosophical perspectives. Constitutional Political Economy, 2001, vol. 15, no. 3, p. 305 – 307.

SCHELLING, T. C. Intergenerational and international discounting. Risk Analysis, 2000, vol. 20, no. 6.

SCHELLING, T. C. Remembering Mancur Olson. Southern Economic Journal, 2000, vol. 66, no. 3.

SCHELLING, T. C. The environmental challenges of power generation. The Energy Journal, 1998, vol. 19, no. 2.

MacCOUN, R., REUTER, P., SCHELLING, T. C. Assesing alternative drug control. regimes. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 1997, vol. 15, no. 3, p. 330 – 352.

SCHELLING, T. C. The cost of combatting global warming. Foreign Affairs, Nov/Dec. 1997, vol. 76, p. 8 – 14.

SCHELLING, T. C. Coping rationally with lapses from rationality. Eastern Economic Journal, Summer 1996, vol. 22, no. 3, p. 251 – 269.

SCHELLING, T. C. Research by accident. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 1996, vol. 53, p. 15 – 20.

SCHELLING, T. C. The economic diplomacy of geoengineering. Climatic Change, July 1996, vol. 33, no. 3, p. 303 – 307.

SCHELLING, T. C. Intergenerational discounting. Energy Policy, 1995, vol. 23, no. 4 – 5, p. 395 – 401.

RIGOTTI, N. A., STOTO, M. A., SCHELLING, T. C. Do businesses comply with a no-smoking law? Assessing the self-enforcement approach. Preventive Medicine, 1994, vol. 23, p. 223 – 229.

SCHELLING, T. C. Some economics of global warming. American Economic Review, March 1992, vol. 82, no. 1, p. 1 – 14.

SCHELLING, T. C. From an airport bench. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May 1989, p. 29 – 31.

SCHELLING, T. C. Promises. Negotiation Journal, Apr. 1989, p. 113 – 118.

SCHELLING, T. C. Strategy and self-command. Negotiation Journal, Oct. 1989, p. 343 – 347.

SCHELLING, T. C. Abolition of ballistic missiles. International Security, 1987, vol. 12, p. 179 – 183.

SCHELLING, T. C. Enforcing rules on oneself. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Fall 1985, vol. 1, no. 2. p. 357 – 374.

SCHELLING, T. C. What went wrong with arms control? Foreign Affairs, 1985, vol. 64, no. 2, p. 219 – 233.

SCHELLING, T. C. Self-command in practice, in policy, and in a theory of rational choice. American Economic Review, May 1984, vol. 74, no. 2, p. 1 – 11.

SCHELLING, T. C. Establishing credibility: strategic considerations. American Economic Review, May 1982, vol. 72, no. 2, p. 77 – 80.

SCHELLING, T. C. Thinking about nuclear terrorism. International Security, Spring 1982, vol. 6.

SCHELLING, T. C. Can nuclear terror be neutralized? International Terrorism: Challenge and Response, 1980, p. 146 – 154.

SCHELLING, T. C. The intimate contest for self-command. The Public Interest, Summer 1980, vol. 60.

SCHELLING, T. C. Egonomics, or the art of self-management. American Economic Review, May 1978, vol. 68, no. 2, p. 290 – 294.

SCHELLING, T. C. Altruism, meanness, and other potentially strategic behaviors. American Economic Review, May 1978, vol. 68, no. 2, p. 229 – 230.

SCHELLING, T. C. The limits of non-proliferation. The New Republic, Jan. 22 1977, p. 38 – 40.

SCHELLING, T. C. The promise and the curse. Saturday Review, Jan. 22 1977, p. 26 – 28.

ZECKHAUSER, R., SCHELLING, T. C. Taxes in fantasy, or most of any tax on labor can turn out to help the laborers. Journal of Public Economics, Oct. 1977, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 133 – 150.

SCHELLING, T. C. Models of segregation. American Economic Association, May 1969, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 488 – 493.

SCHELLING, T. C. The Atlantic Alliance. The Virginian Quarterly Review, Winter 1967, vol. 43, no. 1.

Working papers, proceedings, přednášky, aj.

SCHELLING, T. C. The Marshall plan: a model for what? In The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. Edited by J. Agnew, J. N. Entrikin, Routledge, 2004.

SCHELLING, T. C. Global warming: The state of the debate. Cato Institute Conference, Dec. 12 2003.

SCHELLING, T. C. Terrorism: Perspectives from the behavioral and social sciences. National Research Council Panel on Behavioral, Social, and Institutional Issues, Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism, 2001.

SCHELLING, T. C. Comment. In Climate Change Policy, Economic Growth, and Environmental Quality, Washington DC: American Council for Capital Formation, Center for Policy Research, April 1998.

SCHELLING, T. C. Costs and benefits of reducing greenhouse gases. Washington DC: American Enerprise Institute, March 1998.

SCHELLING, T. C. The question of economic value: an economist’s view. Value, Center for Architecture and Design in America, School of Architecture, The University of Texas at Austin, 1997.

SCHELLING, T. C. Valuation of mitigation and damage over time and space: comment. Conference Proceedings, Climate Changes Policy in Germany and the United States, German-American Academic Council Foundation, Berlin, June 15 – 18 1997.

SCHELLING, T. C. Why does economics help only with easy problems?. In Economic Science and Practice: The roles of academic economists and policymakers. Edited by P. A. G. van Bergeijk, et al., Edward Elgar Publishing, Ltd., 1997.

SCHELLING. T. C. The role of nuclear weapons. In Turning Point: The Gulf War and U.S. Military Strategy. Edited by B. Ederington, M. J. Mazarr, Boulder: Westview Press, 1994.

SCHELLING, T. C. Vietnam: reflection and lessons. In Okinawa Reversion: Its Long-Term Significance in U.S. – Japan Relations, Commemorative Events for the Twentieth Anniversary of the Reversion of Okinawa, 1994.

SCHELLING, T. C. Greenhouse effect. In The Fortune Encyclopedia of Economics. Edited by D. R. Henderson, Warner Books, 1993, p. 447 – 452.

SCHELLING, T. C. The global dimension. In Rethinking America’s Security. G. Allison, G. J. Treverton, New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1992, p. 196 – 210.

SCHELLING, T. C. Self-command: a new discipline. In Choice Over Time. Edited by G. Loewenstein, J. Elster, Russell Sage Foundation, 1992, p. 167 – 176.

SCHELLING, T. C. Economic responses to global warming: prospects for cooperative approaches. In Global Warming: Economic Policy Responses. Edited by R. Dornbush, J. M. Poterba, Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1991.

SCHELLING, T. C. The Marshall plan: a model for Eastern Europe?. In Promoting democracy and free markets in Eastern Europe. Edited by Ch. Wolf, Jr., RAND, 1991, p. 18 – 32.

SCHELLING, T. C. Global environmental forces. In Energy Production, Consumption and Consequences. Edited by J. L. Helm, National Academy Press, 1990, p. 75 – 84.

Interview by Richard Swedberg. In Swedberg, Economics and Sociology, Chapter 10, „Thomas C. Schelling“, Princeton University Press, 1990, p. 186 – 199.

SCHELLING, T. C. The Marshall plan: a rehearsal for the Atlantic Alliance. In Present at the Creation. Edited by A. Clesse, A. C. Epps, New York: Harper and Row, 1990, p. 60 – 69.

SCHELLING, T. C. The role of war games and excercises. In Managing Nuclear Operations. Edited by A. B. Carter, et al., Washington D. C.: The Brookings Institution, 1986, p. 426 – 444.

SCHELLING, T. C. Common security and the limitation of war. In Policies for Common Security, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, London and Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 1985, p. 129 – 133.

SCHELLING, T. C. Energy security: international implications. In Improving U.S. Energy Security. Edited by R. J. Gonzales, R. W. Smilor, J. Darmstadter, Cambridge: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1985.

SCHELLING, T. C. Life, liberty or the pursuit orf happiness. In Challenge to Leadership. Edited by I. V. Sawhill, Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute, 1988.

SCHELLING, T. C. Policy analysis as a science of choice. In Public Policy and Policy Analysis in India. Edited by R. S. Ganapathy, et al., Sage Publications, 1985, p. 19 – 29.

SCHELLING, T. C. Strategy and self-command. Commencement Address, RAND Graduate Institute, P-7200-RGI, Nov. 1985.

SCHELLING, T. C. Alternative sources of Middle East conflict. In Images and Reality in International Politics. Edited by N. Oren, Jerusalem: The Magnet Press, 1984, p. 206 – 210.

SCHELLING, T. C. Arrangements for reciprocal assurance. In Avoiding Inadvertent War: Crisis Management. Edited by H. Roderick, U. Magnusson, The University of Texas, 1983, p. 123 – 130.

SCHELLING, T. C. Climate change: implications for welfare and policy. In Changing Climate: Report of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, The National Academy Press, 1983.

SCHELLING, T. C. Comments. In Strategies for Managing Nuclear Proliferation. Edited by D. L. Brito, M. D. Intriligator, A. E. Wick, Lexington Books, 1983, p. 156 – 158.

SCHELLING, T. C. Ethics, law and the excercise of self-command. In The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, vol. IV. Edited by S. M. McMurin, University of Utah Press, 1983, p. 43 – 79.

Prices as regulatory instruments. In Incentives for Environmental Protection. Edited by T. C. Schelling, Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1983.

SCHELLING, T. C., THOMPSON, G. P. Energy prices and public policy: a statement by the Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic Development and the Conservation Foundation, Washington D. C.: Committee for Economic Development, July 1982.

SCHELLING, T. C. Internal decision making. In Termination of Wars. Edited by N. Oren, Jerusalem: The Magnet Press, 1982, p. 9 – 16.

SCHELLING, T. C. Zero-sum games. Teaching and research materials no. 15T, Cambridge: Harvard University, Public Policy Program, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Aug. 1973.

SCHELLING, T. C. Discrimination without prejudice: some innocuous models. Discussion Paper no 241, Cambridge: Harvard University, Harvard Institute of Economic Research, May 1972.

SCHELLING, T. C. On letting a computer help with the work. Teaching and research materials no. 12, Cambridge: Harvard University, Public Policy Program, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Nov. 1972.

SCHELLING, T. C. Monopolistic restriction and the production of bads. Discussion Paper no. 255, Cambridge: Harvard University, Harvard Institute of Economic Research, Sept. 1972.

SCHELLING, T. C. Thinking through the energy problem. Committee for Economic Development, 1979.

SCHELLING, T. C. The role of theory in the study of conflict. U.S. Air Force, Project Rand Research memorandum, Rand Corp., 1960.

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Thomas Crombie Schelling