James Joseph Heckman

James Joseph Heckman je profesorem ekonomie (Henry Schultz Distinguished Service) na Chicagské univerzitě. Narodil se 19. dubna 1944 v Chicagu. Magisterský titul získal v roce 1968 na ekonomické fakultě Princetonské univerzity, kde o tři roky později ukončil doktorská studia. V roce 1989 získal čestný doktorát na Yaleově univerzitě. Pedagogickou dráhu zahájil jako pomocný asistent na Columbijské a Newyorské univerzitě. Na konci 90. let byl profesorem statistiky a ekonomie na Yaleově univerzitě. Na Chicagské univerzitě pracuje od roku 1973, zprvu jako mimořádný profesor. Je zde zároveň ředitelem Střediska pro hodnocení sociálních programů. Je nositelem mnoha ocenění a členem Ekonometrické společnosti, Americké akademie umění a věd a Národní vědecké akademie. Vedle Nobelovy ceny získal v roce 1983 Cenu Johna Batese Clarka od Americké ekonomické asociace.

Tématem Heckmanových publikací je aplikovaná i teoretická ekonometrie. Heckmanovy modely pomáhají při analýze vzorků v situacích, kdy není možné dostupná data považovat za náhodný výběr z celé populace. Přispěl k metodologii zkoumání „mikrodat“ obsahujících informace o velkých skupinách jednotlivců, domácností či podniků a vypracoval teorie a metody, které se široce používají ve statistických analýzách rozpočtového chování jednotlivců a domácností, jakož i v ekonomické vědě a v dalších humanitních vědách. Jeho práce na teoriích výběru a vyhodnocování sociálních programů jsou často využívány, stejně jako jeho výzkum analýz různorodosti v oblasti spotřebitelských preferencí a v analýzách dlouhodobých dat.

Heckman se poprvé zabýval systematickými chybami ve výběrových šetřeních v souvislosti se studiem nabídky pracovní síly v USA během první poloviny 70. let. Navrhl matematické modely, které umožňují stanovit co vlastně ovlivňuje rozhodnutí strávit v práci určitý počet hodin nebo vůbec vstoupit do zaměstnání. Zejména pozoruhodné je jeho studium otázky, kdy do pracovního poměru vstoupí vdané ženy. Je snadné řící, že vdaná žena přijme zaměstnání, může-li za hodinu práce v zaměstnání dostat více než kolik si cení jedné hodiny strávené v domácnosti. Při zkoumání jak je tato hraničně atraktivní mzda statisticky rozložena se právě setkáme s otázkou výběrového zkreslení. Data je totiž možné získat především od žen již zaměstaných a to ještě jen od těch, které jsou ochotny o svých mzdách vypovídat v dotaznících.

J. Heckman podstatně obohatil výzkum jak aplikované tak teoretické ekonometrie. Jeho metodologické práce o výběrových tendencích a o vyhodnocování sociálních programů, jsou široce využívány, stejně jako výzkumy analýz heterogenity spotřebitelských preferencí a průběžných dat. Publikoval přínosné články zabývající se identifikací mnoha tříd ekonometrických modelů. Rovněž se věnuje vlivu výše daní na trh práce, vlivu finančních úspor na vzdělávání a následné příjmy v zaměstnání a na zaměstnanost vůbec, na dopad certifikačních programů či vlivu odborů na trh práce v rozvojových zemích. Píše také o občanských právech či pozitivní diskriminaci v USA. Program ,,affirmative action“ se zrodil v USA v 60. letech na podporu menšin s cílem dát všem Američanům stejnou příležitost v práci a ve vzdělávání.

Nobelovou cenou byl oceněn právě za ,,vývoj teorií a metod pro analýzu selektivních vzorků“, kde se zabývá zásadami ve vyhodnocování vlivu různých sociálních programů na ekonomiku a společnost.

Heckman je ženatý s Lynne Pettler-Heckman, jejíž profesí je sociologie. Mají syna Jonathana a dceru Almu.

Knihy

Longitudinal Analysis of Labor Market Data. Edited by J. J. Heckman, B. Singer. Cambridge University Press, 1985.

HECKMAN, J. J., SINGER, B., TSIANG, G. Lecture Notes on Longitudinal Data Analysis. Westview Press, 1997.

HECKMAN, J. J. Edited collection. Performance Standards in a Government Bureaucracy. Upjohn Monograph Series and University of Chicago Press.

Články

HECKMAN, J. J., NELSON, R. A Note on Second Best Conditions for Public Goods. Public Finance, 1972.

HECKMAN, J. J., ASHENFELTER, O. The Estimation of Income and Substitution Effects in a Model of Family Labor Supply. Econometrica, January 1974, p. 73-86.

HECKMAN, J. J. Life Cycle Consumption and Labor Supply: An Explanation of the Relationship between Income and Consumption over the Life Cycle. American Economic Review, March 1974, p. 188-194.

HECKMAN, J. J., POLACHEK, S. Empirical Evidence on the Functional Form of the Earnings-Schooling Relationship. Journal of the American Statistical Association, June 1974.

HECKMAN, J. J. Shadow Prices, Market Wages and Labor Supply. Econometrica, July 1974, p. 679-694.

HECKMAN, J. J. Effects of Child-care Programs on Women´s Work Effort. Journal of Political Economy, March/April 1974, p. 136-163. Reprinted in T. W. Schultz (ed.). Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.

HECKMAN, J. J., WILLIS, R. A Stochastic Model of Reproduction: An Econometric Approach. Papers and Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, 1974, Social Statistics Section.

HECKMAN, J. J., ASHENFELTER, O. Estimating Labor Supply Functions. In G. Cain and H. Watts (eds.), Labor Supply and Income Maintenance, Chicago: Markham Publishing Company, 1974.

HECKMAN, J. J., ASHENFELTER, O. Measuring the Effect of an Antidiscrimination Program. Evaluating the Labor Market Effects of Social Programs, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.

HECKMAN, J. J. A Life Cycle Model of Earnings, Learning and Consumption. Journal of Political Economy, August 1976, p. 11-44.

HECKMAN, J. J., WOLPIN, K. Does the Contract Compliance Program Work? An Analysis of Chicago Data. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Summer 1976.

HECKMAN, J. J. Introduction to Special Issue on Discrete, Qualitative and Limited Dependent Variables. Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, December 1976.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Estimation of the Parameters of the Human Capital Production Function and the Rate of Depreciation of Human Capital in a Human Capital Model Embedded in a Life Cycle Model of Labor Supply, in N. Terleckyj (ed.). Household production and Consumption. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, vol. 139.

HECKMAN, J. J. Simultaneous Equation Models with both Continuous and Discrete Endogenous Variables with and without Structural Shift in the Equations. In S. Goldfeld and R. Quandt (eds.), Studies in Nonlinear Estimation, Ballinger, 1976.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables. Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, December 1976.

HECKMAN, J. J., WILLIS, R. A beta-logistic Model for the Analysis of Sequential Labor Force participation by Married Women. Journal of Political Economy, February 1977.

HECKMAN, J. J. An Economic Analysis of the Contract Compliance Program. Essays in Labor Market Analysis and Economic Demography in Memory of Peter Comay. Halstead, 1977.

HECKMAN, J. J., BUTLER, R. The Impact of the Government on the Labor Market Status of Black Americans: A Critical Review. Equal Rights and Industrial Relations. Industrial Relations Research Association, 1977.

HECKMAN, J. J. Comments on The Labor Supply Responses of Wage Earners in the Rural Negative Income Experiment. In J. Palmer and J. Pechman (eds.), Welfare in Rural Areas: The North Carolina – Iowa Maintenance Experiment, Washington, DC: Brookings, 1977.

HECKMAN, J. J. A Partial Survey of Recent Research on the Labor Supply of Women. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, May 1978.

HECKMAN, J. J. Dummy Endogenous Variables in a Simultaneous Equation System. Econometrica, July 1978, p. 931-959.

HECKMAN, J. J. Simple Statistical Models for Discrete Panel Data Developed and Applied to Test the Hypotheses of True State Dependence Against the Hypothesis of Spurious State Dependence. Annales d´INSEE. Paris, September 1978, p. 227-269.

HECKMAN, J. J. New Evidence on the Dynamics of Female Labor Supply. In E. Andrews and C. Lloyd (eds.), Women in the Labor Market, New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.

HECKMAN, J. J., BORJAS, G. Labor Supply Estimates for Public Policy Evaluation. Proceedings of the Industrial and Labor Relations Research Association, Chicago meeting, 1978.

HECKMAN, J. J. Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error. Econometrica, January 1979, p. 153-161.

HECKMAN, J. J., MacCURDY, T. A Life Cycle Model of Female Labour Supply. Review of Economics Studies, January 1980, p. 47-74.

HECKMAN, J. J., BORJAS, G. Does Unemployment Cause Future Unemployment? Definitions, Questions and Answers from a Continuous Time Model of Heterogeneity and State Dependence. Economica, May 1980.

HECKMAN, J. J. Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error with an Application to the Estimation of Labor Supply Functions. In J. Smith (ed.), Female Labor Supply: Theory and Estimation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980.

HECKMAN, J. J. Addendum to Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error. In E. Stromsdorfer and G. Farkas, Evaluation Studies Review Annual, Sage Publications, 1980, vol. 5, p. 69-74.

HECKMAN, J. J. Statistical Models for Discrete Panel Data. In C. Manski and D. McFadden (eds.), Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.

HECKMAN, J. J. Heterogeneity and State Dependence. In S. Rosen (ed.), Studies in Labor Markets, University of Chicago Press, 1981.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Incidental Parameters Problem and the Problem of Initial Conditions in Estimating a Discrete Time Discrete Data Stochastic Process. In C. Manski and D. McFadden (eds.), Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.

HECKMAN, J. J., MacCURDY, T. Current Theoretical and Empirical Studies of Labor Supply: Second Generation Studies. Research in Labor Economics, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc., 1981.

HECKMAN, J. J., KILLINGSWORTH, M., MacCURDY, T. Recent Theoretical and Empirical Studies of Labor Supply: a Partial Survey. In Z. Hornstein (ed.), Studies of the Labor Market, London: HM Treasury, 1981.

HECKMAN, J. J., SEDLACEK, G. The Impact of the Minimum Wage on the Employment and Earnings of Workers in South Carolina. Report of the Minimum Wage Study Commission, US Government Printing Office, June 1981, vol. 5, p. 225-272.

HECKMAN, J. J., FINN, C. Models for the Analysis of Labor Force Dynamics. In R. Bassmann and G. Rhodes (eds.), Advances in Econometrics, January 1982.

HECKMAN, J. J., FINN, C. New Methods for Analyzing Structural Models of Labor Force Dynamics. Journal of Econometrics, January 1982, p. 115-168.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Identification Problem in Econometric Models for Duration Data. In W. Holdenbrand (ed.), Advances in Econometrics, Proceedings of Fourth World Congress of Econometric Society, Cambridge University Press, 1982.

HECKMAN, J. J., MICHAEL, R. Earnings and the Distribution of Income. Behavioral and Social Science Research, a National Resource, National Academy of Science Press, 1982, Part II.

HECKMAN, J. J., FINN, C. Are Unemployment and Out of the Labor Force Behaviorally Distinct Labor Force States?. Journal of Labor Economics, January 1983, p. 28-42.

HECKMAN, J. J. A Life Cycle Model of Family Labor Supply. In B. Weisbrod and H. Hughes, Human Resource, Employment and Development, Proceedings of IEA Sixth World Congress, London: Macmillan, 1983.

HECKMAN, J. J., FINN, C. The Likelihood Function for the Multistate – Multiepisode Model in „Models for the Analysis of Labor Force Dynamics“. In R. Bassmann and G Rhodes (eds.), Advances in Econometrics, 1983, vol. 2, p. 225-231.

HECKMAN, J. J., EVANS, D. Natural Monopoly. In D. Evans (ed.), Breaking Up Bell: Essays on Industrial Organization and Regulation, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1983, p. 127-156.

HECKMAN, J. J., EVANS, D. Multiproduct Cost Function Estimates and Natural Monopoly Tests for the Bell System. In D. Evans (ed.). Breaking Up Bell: Essays on Industrial Organization and Regulation, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1983, p. 253-282.

HECKMAN, J. J., SINGER, B. Econometric Duration Analysis. Journal of Econometrics, January 1984, p. 63-132.

HECKMAN, J. J., SINGER, B. A Method for Minimizing the Impact of Distributional Assumptions in Econometric Models for Duration Data. Econometrica, March 1984. p. 271-320.

HECKMAN, J. J., SINGER, B. The Identifiability of the Proportional Hazard Model. Review of Economic Studies, April 1984, p. 231-241.

HECKMAN, J. J., SINGER, B. A Test for Subadditivity of the Cost Function with an Application to the U.S. Bell System. American Economic Review, September 1984, p. 615-623.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Chi-square Goodness of Fit Statistic for Models with Parameters Estimated from Microdata. Econometrica, November 1984, p. 1543-1547.

HECKMAN, J. J., SINGER, B. Population Heterogeneity in Demographic Models. In A. Rodgers and K. Land (eds.), Multidimensional Mathematical Demography, 1984, p. 271-320.

HECKMAN, J. J., MacCURDY, T. A Simultaneous Equations Linear Probability Model. Canadian Journal of Economics, January 1985.

HECKMAN, J. J., HOTZ, J., WALKER, J. New Evidence on the Timing and Spacing of Births. American Economic Review, May 1958, p. 179-184.

HECKMAN, J. J., SEDLACEK, G. Heterogeneity, Aggregation and Market Wage Functions: An Empirical Model of Self-selection in the Labor Market. Journal of Political Economy, December 1985, p. 1077-1125.

HECKMAN, J. J., HOTZ, J., WALKER, J. The Influence of Early Fertility and Subsequent Births and the Importance of Controlling for Unobserved Heterogeneity. Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute, 1985.

HECKMAN, J. J., SINGER, B. Social Science Duration Analysis, 1985.

HECKMAN, J. J., ROBB, R. Alternative Methods for Estimating the Impact of Interventions. 1985.

HECKMAN, J. J., ROBB, R. Using Longitudinal data to Estimate Age, Period and Cohort Effects in Earnings Equations. In W. M. Mason and S. E. Fienberg (eds.), Cohort Analysis in Social Research Beyond the Identification Problem, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985.

HECKMAN, J. J., CHETTY, V. K. A Dynamic Model of Aggregate Output Supply, Factor Demand and Entry and Exit for a Competitive Industry with Heterogeneous Plants. Journal of Econometrics, 1986, p. 237-262.

HECKMAN, J. J., MacCURDY, T. Labor Econometrics. In Z. Griliches (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1986.

HECKMAN, J. J., ROBB, R. Alternative Methods for Solving the Problem of Selection Bias in Evaluating the Impact of Treatments on Outcomes. In H. Wainer (ed.), Drawing Inference from Self-selected Samples, Springer-Verlag, 1986.

HECKMAN, J. J., HOTZ, J. The Earnings of Panamanian Males. Journal of Human Resources, September 1986.

HECKMAN, J. J., ROBB, R. Alternative Identifying Assumptions in Econometric models of Selection Bias. In G. Rhodes (ed.), Advances in Econometrics, 1986, vol. 5.

HECKMAN, J. J., SCHEINKMAN, J. The Importance of Bundling in a Gorman-Lancaster Model of Earnings. Review of Economic Studies, 1987.

HECKMAN, J. J., KILLINGSWORTH, M. Female Labor Supply: A Survey. Chapter 2. In O. Ashenfelter and R. Layard (eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics, Amsterdam: North.-Holland, 1987.

HECKMAN, J. J., HOTZ, J., DABOS, M. Are Classical Experiments Necessary for Evaluating the Impact of Manpower Training Programs?: A Critical Assessment. Industrial Relations Research Association: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, 1987, p. 291-302.

HECKMAN, J. J., WALKER, J. Using Chi-squared Goodness of Fit Tests and Other Criteria to Choose among Competing Duration Models: A Case Study of Hutterite Data. Sociological Methodology, 1987.

HECKMAN, J. J. Selection Bias and the Economics of Self Selection. The New Palgrave. London: Macmillan, 1987.

HECKMAN, J. J., HOTZ, J., DABOS, M. Do We Need Experimental Data to Evaluate the Impact of Training on Earnings. Evaluation Review, August 1987, p. 397-427.

HECKMAN, J. J., MacCURDY, T. Empirical Tests of Labor Market Equilibrium: A Microeconomic Perspective. Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Spring 1988, p. 231-258.

HECKMAN, J. J. Time Constraints and Household Demand Functions. In T. P. Schultz (ed.), Research in Population Economics, Greenwich, CT: JAL Press, 1988, vol. 6.

HECKMAN, J. J., ROBB, R. The Value of Longitudinal Data for Evaluating the Impact of Treatments on Outcomes. In G. Duncan and G. Kalton (eds.), Panel Surveys, New York: Wiley, 1988, p. 512-538.

HECKMAN, J. J., PAYNER, B. Determining the Impact of Federal Antidiscrimination Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Study of South Carolina. American Economic Review, March 1989, p. 138-177.

HECKMAN, J. J., HONORÉ, B. The Identifiability of the Competing Risks Model. Biometrika, June 1989, p. 325-330.

HECKMAN, J. J., HOTZ, J. Choosing among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods for Estimating the Impact of Social programs: The Case of Manpower Training. Journal of the American Statistical Association, December 1989, p. 862-874.

HECKMAN, J. J., WALKER, J. Forecasting Aggregate Period Specific Birth Rates: Time Series Properties of a Microdynamic Neoclassical Model of Fertility. Journal of the American Statistical Association, December 1989, p. 958-965.

HECKMAN, J. J., BUTLER, R., PAYNER, B. The Impact of the Economy and the State on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Study of South Carolina. In D. Galenson (ed.), Markets and Institutions, Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 321-343.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Impact of Government on the Economic Status of Black Americans. In W. Darity and S. Shulman (eds.), The Question of Discrimination, Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1989, p. 50-80.

HECKMAN, J. J. Affirmative Action and Black Employment. Proceedings of the Industrial Relations Research Association, 1989, vol. 41, p. 320-329.

HECKMAN, J. J. Causal Inference and Nonrandom Samples. Journal of Educational Statistics, Summer 1989, p. 159-168. Reprinted in J. Schaeffer (ed.). The Role of Models in nonexperimental Social Science: Two debates, 1991.

HECKMAN, J. J., SEDLACEK, G. Self Selection and the Distribution of Hourly Wage Rates. Journal of Labor Economics, January 1990, p. 329-363.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Impact of the Great Society on Social Science. Journal of Human Resources, Spring 1990, p. 297-304.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Central Role of the South in Accounting for the Economic Progress of Black Americans. Papers and Proceedings of the American Economic Association, May 1990.

HECKMAN, J. J. Varieties of Selection Bias. American Economic Review, May 1990, p. 313-318.

HECKMAN, J. J., WALKER, J. Estimating Fecundability from Data on Waiting Times to First Conceptions. Journal of the American Statistical Association, June 1990, p. 283-294.

HECKMAN, J. J., ROBB, R., WALKER, J. Testing the Mixture of Exponentials hypothesis and Estimating the Mixing Distribution by the Method of Moments. Journal of the American Statistical Association, June 1990, p. 582-589.

HECKMAN, J. J. Understanding the Economic Progress of Black Americans. Business in the Contemporary World, Summer 1990, p. 19-22.

HECKMAN, J. J., VERKERKE, R. Racial Disparity and Employment Discrimination Law: An Economic Perspective and Rejoinder. Yale Law and Policy Review, Summer 1990, p. 276-298, 320-330.

HECKMAN, J. J., HONORÉ, B. The Empirical Content of the Roy Model . Econometrica, September 1990, p. 1121-1149.

HECKMAN, J. J., WALKER, J. The Relationship between Wages and Income and the Timing and Spacing of Births: Evidence from Swedish Longitudinal Data. Econometrica, November 1990, p. 235-275.

HECKMAN, J. J., WALKER, J. The Third Birth in Sweden. Journal of Population Economics, 1990, p. 235-275.

HECKMAN, J. J. A Method of Moments Estimator for the Mixing Distribution of a Mixture of Exponentials Model and a Mixture of Geometrics Model. In W. Barnett, J. Powell and G. Tauchen (eds.), Nonparametric Estimation of Econometric Models, Cambridge Universtiy Press, 1990.

HECKMAN, J. J. A Nonparametric Method of Moments Estimator for the Mixture of Geometrics Model. In J. Hartog, G. Ridder and J. Theeuwes (eds.), Panel Data and Labor market Studies, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1990.

HECKMAN, J. J., WALKER, J. Economic Models of Fertility Dynamics: A Study of Swedish Fertility. In T. P. Schultz (ed.), Research in Population Economics. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990, vol. 7, p. 3-91.

HECKMAN, J. J. Identifying the Hand of the Past: Distinguishing State Dependence from Heterogeneity. American Economic Review, May 1991, p. 75-79.

HECKMAN, J. J., DONOHUE, J. Continuous vs. Episodic Change: The Impact of Affirmative Action and Civil Rights Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks. Journal of Economic Literature, December 1991, p. 1603-1643.

HECKMAN, J. J., DONOHUE, J. Reevaluating Federal Civil Rights Policy. Georgetown Law Journal, 1991.

HECKMAN, J. J. Accounting for the Economic Progress of Black Americans. In R. Cornawall and P. V. Wunnava (eds.), New Approaches to Economics and Social Analyses of Discrimination, New York: Praeger, 1991, p. 331-337.

HECKMAN, J. J. Randomization and Social Policy Evaluation. In C. Manski and I. Garfinkel (eds.), Evaluating Welfare and Training Programs, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.

HECKMAN, J. J. Understanding Third Births in Sweden. In J. Trussell, R. Hankinson and J. Tilton (eds.), Demographic Applications of Event History Analysis, Oxford University Press, 1992.

HECKMAN, J. J. Haavelmo and the Birth of Modern Econometrics: A Review of the History of Econometric Ideas. Journal of Economic Literature, June 1992, p. 876-886.

HECKMAN, J. J., PHILIPSON, T. Evaluating an Argument for Affirmative Action. Rationality and Society, July 1992.

HECKMAN, J. J., CAMERON, S. The Nonequivalence of High School Equivalents. Journal of Labor Economics, January 1993, p. 1-47.

HECKMAN, J. J. What Has Been Learned about Labor Supply in the Past Twenty Years?. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, May 1993, p. 116-121.

HECKMAN, J. J. Assessing the Case for Randomized Evaluation of Social Programs. In K. Jensen and P. Madsen (eds.), Measuring Labor Market Program: Evaluating the Effects of Active Labor market Initiatives, Copenhagen: Ministry of Labor, May 1993.

HECKMAN, J. J., SIEGELMAN, P. The Urban Institute Audit Studies: Their Methods and Findings. In M. Fix and R. Struyk (eds.), Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of Discrimination in America, Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Fall 1993.

HECKMAN, J. J. Determinants of Young Male Schooling and Training Choices. In L. Lynch (ed.), Private Sector Skill Formation: International Comparisons, University of Chicago Press, 1993.

HECKMAN, J. J. Is Job Training Oversold?. The Public Interest, Spring 1994, p. 91-115.

HECKMAN, J. J., TABER, C. Econometric Mixture Models and More General Models for Unobservables. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 1994.

HECKMAN, J. J., SMITH, J., ROSELIUS, R. U.S. Education and Training Policy: A Reevaluation of the Underlying Assumptions behind the New Consensus. In A. Levenson and L. C. Solmon (eds.), Labor Markets, Employment Policy and Job Creation, Santa Monica, CA: Milken Institute, October 1994.

HECKMAN, J. J., SMITH, J. Assessing the Case for Social Experiments. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 1995, p. 85-110.

HECKMAN, J. J. Lessons from the Bell Curve. Journal of Political Economy, October 1995, p. 1091-1120.

HECKMAN, J. J., DEVINE, T. The Economics of Eligibility Rules for a Social Program: A Study of the Job Training Partnership Act -A Summary Report. Canadian Journal of Economics, 1995.

HECKMAN, J. J. Randomization as an Instrumental Variable. Review of Economics and Statistics, May 1996, p. 336-341.

HECKMAN, J. J. E-6 Identification of Causal Effects Using Instrumental Variables: Comment. Journal of the American Statistical Association, June 1996, p. 459-462.

HECKMAN, J. J., LAYNE-FARRAR, A., TODD, P. Does Measured School Quality Really Matter? An Examination of the Earnings-Quality Relationship. In G. Burtless (ed.), Does Money Matter? The Effect of School Resources on Student Achievement and Success, Washington, DC: Brookings, July 1996.

HECKMAN, J. J., LAYNE-FARRAR, A., TODD, P. Human Capital Pricing Equations with and Application to Estimating the Effect of Schooling Quality on Earnings. Review of Economics and Statistics, November 1996.

HECKMAN, J. J., HANSEN, L. The Empirical Foundations of Calibration. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Winter 1996, p. 87-104.

HECKMAN, J. J., NEAL, D. Coleman´s Contribution to Education: Theory and Research Styles and Empirical Research. In Jon Clark (ed.), The Contributions of James Coleman, London/New York/Philadelphia: Falmer Press, 1996.

HECKMAN, J. J., SMITH, J. Experimental and Nonexperimental Evaluation. In G. Schmid (ed.), International Handbook of Labor Market Policy and Evaluation, Elgar Publishing Company, 1996.

HECKMAN, J. J., SMITH, J., TABER, C. What Do Bureaucrats Do? The Effects of Performance Standards and Bureaucratic Preferences on Acceptance into the JTPA Program. In G. Liebcap (ed.), Studies in Bureaucratic Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Preess, 1996.

HECKMAN, J. J., DEVINE, T. Consequences of Eligibility Rules for a Social Program: A Study of the Job Training Partnership Act. In S. Polachek, Research in Labor Economics, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996, vol. 15, p. 111-170.

HECKMAN, J. J. What Should be Our Human Capital Investment Policy?. In G. Mangum, Of Heart and Mind, Upjohn, 1996.

HECKMAN, J. J., SMITH, J. Social Experiments: Theory and Evidence. Ökonomie and Gesellschaft, Jahrbuch 13, 1996, p. 186-214.

HECKMAN, J. J., ICHIMURA, H., SMITH, J., TODD, P. Sources of Selection Bias in Evaluating Programs: An Interpretation of Conventional Measures and Evidence on the Effectiveness of Matching as a Program Evaluation Method. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, November, 1996.

HECKMAN, J., HEINRICH, C., SMITH, J. Assessing the Performance of Performance Standards in Public Bureaucracies. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, May 1997, p. 389-395.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Value of Quantitative Evidence on the Effect of the Past on the Present. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, May 1997, p. 404-408.

HECKMAN, J. J., LOCHNER, L., SMITH, J., TABER, C. The Effects of Government Policy on Human Capital Investment and Wage Inequality. Chicago Policy Review, Spring 1997, p. 1-40.

HECKMAN, J. J. Instrumental Variables: A Study of Implicit Behavioral Assumptions Used in Making Program Evaluations. Journal of Human Resources, Summer 1997, p. 441-462.

HECKMAN, J. J. Intellectual Roots of the Law and Economics Movement. Law and History Review, Fall 1997, p. 327-332..

HECKMAN, J. J., ICHIMURA, H., TODD, P. Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme. Review of Economic Studies, October 1997, p. 605-654.

HECKMAN, J. J., SNYDER, J. Linear Probability Models of the Demand for Attributes with an Empirical Application to Estimating the Preferences of Legislators. Rand Journal of Economics, 1997, p. 142-189.

HECKMAN, J. J., LOCHNER, L., TABER, C. Explaining Rising Wage Inequality: Explorations with a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model of Labor Earnings with Heterogeneous Agents. Review of Economic Dynamics, January 1998, p. 1-58.

HECKMAN, J. J., SMITH, J., TABER, C. Accounting for Dropouts in the Evaluation of Social Experiments.  Review of Economics and Statistics, February 1998.

HECKMAN, J. J. Rethinking Myths about Education and Training: Understanding the Sources of Skill Formation in a Modern Economy. Presidential Address, Midwest Economics Association Meetings, The Public Interest, March 1998.

HECKMAN, J. J., CAMERON, S. Life Cycle Schooling and Educational Selectivity: Models and Choice. Journal of Political Economy, April 1998.

HECKMAN, J. J. Detecting Discrimination. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 1998, p. 101-116.

HECKMAN, J. J. What Should be Our Human Capital Investment Policy?. Fiscal Studies, Spring 1998.

HECKMAN, J. J., LOCHNER, L., TABER, C. General Equilibrium Treatment Effects: A Study of Tuition Policy. American Economic Review, May 1998, p. 381-386.

HECKMAN, J. J., LOCHNER, L., TABER, C. Tax Policy and Human Capital Formation. American Economic Review, May 1998, p. 293-297.

HECKMAN, J. J., ICHIMURA, H., SMITH, J., TODD, P. Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data. Econometrica, September 1998, p. 1017-1098.

HECKMAN, J. J., VYTLACIL, E. Instrumental Variables Methods for the Correlated Random Coefficient Model: Estimating the Average Rate of Return to Schooling when the Return is Correlated with Schooling. Journal of Human Resources, Fall 1998.

HECKMAN, J. J. The Effects of Government Policies on Human Capital Investement, Unemployment and Earnings Inequality. In Publication of the GAAC, Symposia, Labor Markets in the USA and Germany, Bonn: German-American Academic Council Foundation, 1998.

HECKMAN, J. J., SMITH, J. The Sensitivity of Experimental Impact Estimates: Evidence from the JTPA Study. In R. Freeman (ed.), Youth Unemployment. University of Chicago Press and NBER, 1998.

HECKMAN, J. J., SMITH, J. Evaluating the Welfare State. In S. Strom (ed.), Econometrics and Economic Theory in the 20th Century: The Ragnar Frisch Centennial Symposium, Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 241-318.

HECKMAN, J. J., CAWLEY, J., LOCHNER, L., VYTLACIL, E. Ability, Human Capital, and Wages. In S. Mayer and P. Peterson (eds.), Cognitive and Social Skills: Consequences and Trends, Washington, DC: Bookings Institute, 1998.

HECKMAN, J. J., LOCHNER, L., TABER, C. Human Capital Formation and General Equilibrium Treatment Effects: A Study of Tax and Tuition Policy. Fiscal Studies, March 1999, p. 1-16.

HECKMAN, J. J., VYTLACIL, E. Local Instrumental Variables and Latent Variable Models for Identifying and Bounding Treatment Effects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, April 1999, p. 4730-473

HECKMAN, J. J., SMITH, J. Implications for Simple Programme Evaluation Strategies. Economic Journal, July 1999, p. 313-348.

HECKMAN, J. J., CAWLEY, J., VYTLACIL, E. On Policies to Reward the Value Added by Educators. Review of Economics and Statistics, November 1999, p. 720-727.

HECKMAN, J. J., LOCHNER, L., TABER, C. Evaluation of Education and Training Programs in a General Equilibrium Setting. In G. Ranis and L. Raut (eds.), Trade, Growth and Development: Essays in Honor of T. N. Srinivasan, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV, 1999.

HECKMAN, J. J., LOCHNER, L., LaRONDE, R., SMITH, J. The Economics and Econometrics of Active Labor Marke Programs. In O. Ashenfelter and D. Card (eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1999, vol. 3.

HECKMAN, J. J., LOCHNER, L., TABER, C. General Equilibrium Cost Benefit Analysis of Education and Tax Policies. In G. Ranis and L. Raut (eds.), Trade, Growth and Development: Essays in Honor of T. N. Srinivasan, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV, 1999, p. 291-393.

HECKMAN, J. J., CAWLEY, J., LOCHNER, L., VYTLACIL, E. Understanding the Role of Cognitive Ability in Accounting for the Recent Rise in the Economic Return to Education. In K. Arrow, S. Bowlres and S. Durlauf (eds.), Meritocracy and Economic Inequality, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

HECKMAN, J. J., CAWLEY, J., VYTLACIL, E. Meritocracy in America: An Examination of Wages within and across Occupations. Industrial Relations, 1999, p. 250-296.

HECKMAN, J. J., VYTLACIL, E. The Relationship between Treatment Parameters within a Latent Variable Framework. Economics Letters, January 2000, p. 33-39.

HECKMAN, J. J. Causal Parameters and Policy Analysis in Economics: A 20th Century Retrospective. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2000, p. 45-97.

HECKMAN, J. J. Policies to Foster Human Capital. Research in Economics, March 2000, p. 3-56.

HECKMAN, J. J., LYONS, T., TODD, P. Understanding Black-White Wage Differentials, 1960-1990. American Economic Review, May 2000, p. 344-349.

HECKMAN, J. J., HOHMANN, N., SMITH, J. Substitution and Dropout Bias in Social Experiments: a Study of an Influential Social Experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 2000, p. 651-694.

HECKMAN, J. J., BROWNING, M., HANSEN, L. Micro Data and General Equilibrium Models. In J. Taylor and M. Woodford (eds.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 2000.

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James Joseph Heckman