Amartya Kumar Sen

Amartya Sen se narodil v roce 1933 v indickém Bengalu, ve skromné rodině vzdělanců. Otec profesora Sena, Asutosh Sen, který zemřel v roce 1971, znalec v oboru zemědělství, se stal předsedou výboru Unie veřejných služeb. Již od malička se Amartya Sen zajímal o ekonomii. Velký vliv na něho měli tragické
události v tehdejší společnosti, které si vyžádaly životy mnoha chudých lidí v
rodné Indii, na základě těchto zkušeností začal přemýšlet o ekonomickém
blahobytu.

Své počáteční vzdělání získal Amartya Sen v Santiniketan, později studoval na Presidency College v Calcutta. V letech 1963 až 1971 působil jako profesor na Delhi School of Economics, kde je stále čestným profesorem.

Profesor Sen byl třikrát ženatý, má dvě dcery, z nichž se jedna stala dobře známou žurnalistkou. V současné době působí na vedoucím místě cambridžské Trinity College.

Téměř ve všech pracích se Amartya Sen zabývá rozvojovými zeměmi a jejich
problémy z ekonomického i filozofického hlediska. Amartya Sen objasnil předpoklady, za nichž lze agregovat individuální hodnoty do kolektivních rozhodnutí a stanovil pravidla tohoto rozhodování tak, aby bylo v souladu s právy jednotlivce. Posílil teoretické základy pro srovnání odlišného rozdělení bohatství ve společnosti a definování nových, mnohem více uspokojivých indexů chudoby. Senův teoretický přístup nám umožnil lépe porozumět ekonomickým mechanismům způsobujícím
chudobu.

K napravení některých nedostatků běžného měřítka chudoby navrhl Sen zkonstruovat index chudoby, který bere v úvahu jak míru nerovnosti vyjádřenou Giniho koeficientem, tak rozdělení důchodu. Oba ukazatelé jsou počítány pouze pro jedince nacházejícího se pod hranicí chudoby. S ohledem na své dřívější analýzy bohatství jednotlivců Sen vysvětlil, kdy může být index použit.

Amartya Sen zdůraznil, že nikoli zboží jako takové vytváří bohatství, ale jsou to
činnosti, pro něž je zboží vyráběno. Podle tohoto pohledu je příjem důležitý
kvůli příležitostem, které vytváří. Ale skutečné příležitosti, nebo jak je
nazývá Sen schopnosti, závisejí rovněž na jiných faktorech jako například
zdraví. Také tyto faktory by tedy měly být brány v úvahu v případě měření
bohatství. Alternativní ukazatelé bohatství (např. index lidského rozvoje) jsou pak vytvořeny přesně v tomto duchu.

Amartya Sen poukázal také na to, že morální zásady předpokládají v určitém
ohledu rovnost mezi jednotlivci. Protože však schopnost využít rovnocenné
příležitosti je různá a závisí na každém jedinci, problém rozdělení příjmů
nemůže být nikdy plně vyřešen. Rovnost v jedné oblasti nutně vyvolává nerovnost v oblasti jiné. Ve kterých oblastech obhajujeme rovnost a kde naopak jsme ochotni akceptovat nerovnost, zřejmě závisí na tom, jak hodnotíme odlišné oblasti bohatství. Sen tvrdí, že schopnosti jednotlivců jsou tou základní oblastí, ve
které bychom měli bojovat za rovnost.

Amartya Sen se také zabývá studiem současných hladomorů. Jeho nejlepší práce v této oblasti je kniha z roku 1981 Chudoba a hlad. Na základě důsledných studií
několika takových katastrof v Indii, Bangladéši a saharské Africe od 40. let Sen
definoval další vysvětlující faktory. Hladomory nemohou být vysvětleny pouze
nedostatkem potravin. Hlad se objevil také tehdy, když zásoby potravin nebyly
významně nižší než během předešlých let (bez hladomoru), nebo i tehdy, kdy
oblasti postižené hladomorem potraviny dovážely.

Sen poukázal na to, že důkladné porozumění tohoto problému vyžaduje hluboké
analýzy. Analýzy toho, jaké ekonomické a sociální faktory ovlivnily skutečné
možnosti jednotlivých skupin ve společnosti.

Částečným vysvětlením hladomoru v Bangladéši v roce 1974 byly záplavy, které
postihly zemi a znamenaly výrazný růst cen potravin, zatímco pracovní příležitosti zemědělských dělníků se drasticky snížily, jelikož úroda nemohla být sklizena. Díky těmto faktorům reálný příjem zemědělských dělníků poklesl tak značně, že tato skupina obyvatelstva byla nucena hladovět.

Pozdější Senovy práce se zabývají otázkou, jak hladomorům předcházet nebo jak
alespoň zmírnit jeho důsledky, pokud se již jednou objeví. Ačkoli někteří
kritizovali empirické závěry, ke kterým Sen ve své knize Chudoba a hlad dospěl, je jeho dílo nepochybně velkým přínosem k rozvoji ekonomické vědy.

Amartya Sen zformuloval nové teoretické koncepty růstu a prosperity, poukázal na některé nedostatky dosavadních teorií, zabýval se i etickými otázkami odvrácené stránky vývoje zejména v rozvojových zemích, který je mnohdy doprovázen hladomorem, bídou a diskriminací.

Knihy

SEN, A. Choice of Techniques. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1960.

Growth Economics. Edited by Amartya K. Sen. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1970.

SEN, A. Collective Choice and Social Welfare. San Francisco: Holden Day, 1970.

SEN, A., DASGUPTA, P., MARGLIN, S. A. Guidelines for Project Evaluation. New York: United Nations, 1972.

SEN, A., FOSTER, J. On Economic Inequality. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.

SEN, A. Employment, Technology, and Development. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.

SEN, A. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford University Press, 1981.

Utilitarianism and Beyond. Edited by Amartya Sen, Bernard Williams. Cambridge: University Press, 1982.

SEN, A. Choice, Welfare and Measurement. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1982.

SEN, A. Resources, Values and Development. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984.

SEN, A. Commodities and Capabilities. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1985.

SEN, A. The Standard of Living. Tanner Lectures with rejoinders by Bernard Williams and others. Edited by G. Hawthorne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

SEN, A. On Ethics and Economics. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, 1988.

SEN, A., DRÉZE, J. Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.

The Political Economy of Hunger. In 3 volumes. Edited by Amartya Sen, Jean Dréze. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990 and 1991.

SEN, A. Inequality Reexamined. Oxford Oxford University Press, 1992.

The Quality of Life. Edited by Amartya Sen, Martha Nussbaum. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

SEN, A., DRÉZE, J. India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Indian Development: Selected Regional Perspectives. Edited by Amartya Sen, Jean Dréze. Oxford University Press, 1997.

SEN, A. La liberta individuale come impegno sociale. Rome & Bari: Editori Laterza, 1997.

SEN, A. Laicismo Indiano. Edited by Armando Massarenti. Milan: Feltrinelli, 1998.

SEN, A. Development as Freedom. Oxford University Press, 1999.

SEN, A. Freedom, Rationality and Social Choice: Arrow Lectures and Other Essays. To be published by Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Články

SOCIAL CHOICE THEORY

SEN, A. Preferences, Votes and the Transitivity of Majority Decisions. Review of Economic Studies, Apr. 1964, no. 31.

SEN, A. A Possibility Theorem on Majority Decisions. Econometrica, 1966, no. 34.

SEN, A. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Rational Choice under Majority Decision. Journal of Economic Theory, Aug. 1969, no. 1.

SEN, A. The Impossibility of a Paretian Liberal. Journal of Political Economy, 1970, no. 78.

SEN, A. Interpersonal Aggregation and Partial Comparability. Econometrica, May 1970, no. 38. A Correction. Econometrica, Sep. 1972, no. 40.

SEN, A. The Impossibility of a Paretian Liberal: A Reply. Journal of Political Economy, Nov./Dec. 1971, no. 79.

SEN, A. Liberty, Unanimity and Rights. Economica, Aug. 1976, no. 43.

SEN, A. Social Choice Theory: A Re-examination. Econometrica, 1977, no. 45.

SEN, A. On Weights and Measures: Informational Constraints in Social Welfare Analysis. Econometrica, Oct. 1977, no. 45.

SEN, A. Strategies and Revelation: Informational Constraints in Public Decisions. In Aggregation and Revelation of Preferences. Edited by J. J. Laffont, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1979.

SEN, A. Social Choice and Justice: A Review Article. Journal of Economic Literature, Dec. 1985, no. 23.

SEN, A. Foundations of Social Choice Theory: An Epilogue. In Foundations of Social Choice Theory. Edited by J. Elster, A. Hylland, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

SEN, A. Social Choice Theory. In Handbook of Mathematical Economics, Vol. III. Edited by K. J. Arrow, M. Intriligator, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1986.

SEN, A. Social Choice. In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, London: Macmillan, 1987.

SEN, A., WELFARE, K. Freedom and Social Choice: A Reply. Recherches Economiques de Louvain, 1990, no. 56.

SEN, A. Minimal Liberty. Economica, 1992, no. 57.

SEN, A. Internal Consistency of Choice. Econometrica, 1993, no. 61.

SEN, A. How to Judge Voting Schemes. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1995, no. 9.

SEN, A. Rationality and Social Choice. American Economic Review, 1995, no. 85.

SEN, A. Social Commitment and Financial Conservatism. Il Mulino, Mar./Apr. 1996, no. 364.

SEN, A. Social Commitment and Democracy: The Demands of Equity and Financial Conservatism (Eva Colorni Memorial volume). In Living as Equals. Edited by P. Barker, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

SEN, A., RIGHTS, K. Formulation and Consequences. Analyse and Kritik, 1996, no. 18.

SEN, A. Individual Preference as the Basis of Social Choice. In Social Choice Re-examined. Edited by K. J. Arrow et al., London: Macmillan, 1997.

WELFARE ECONOMICS

SEN, A. Distribution, Transitivity and Little’s Welfare Criterion. Economic Journal, Dec. 1963, no. 73.

SEN, A. The Efficiency of Indirect Taxes. In Problems of Economic Dynamics and Planning: Essays in Honour of M. Kalecki. Warsaw, 1964.

SEN, A. Mishan, Little and Welfare: A Reply. Economic Journal, 1965, no. 75.

SEN, A. Labour Allocation in a Cooperative Enterprise. Review of Economic Studies, Jul. 1966.

SEN, A. A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Theories of Collectivism in Allocation. In Growth and Choice. Edited by T. Majumdar. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.

SEN, A. Planner’s Preferences: Optimality, Distibution and Social Welfare. In Public Economics. Edited by J. Margolis, H. Guitton. London: Macmillan, 1969.

SEN, A. On Ignorance and Equal Distribution. American Economic Review, Dec. 1973, no. 63.

SEN, A. Informational Basis of Alternative Welfare Approaches: Aggregation and Income Distribution. Journal of Public Economics, 1974, no. 3.

SEN, A. Welfare Inequalities and Rawlsian Axiomatics. Theory and Decision, 1976, no. 7.

SEN, A. Non-linear Social Welfare Functions. In Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Edited by R. Butts, J. Hintikka. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1977.

SEN, A. Poverty and Welfarism. Intermountain Economic Review, Spring 1977.

SEN, A. Welfare Theory. In Encyclopedic Handbook of Mathematical Economic Sciences. Edited by Beckmann, Menges, Selten. Gabler, 1978.

SEN, A. Personal Utilities and Public Judgments: Or What’s Wrong with Welfare Economics? Economic Journal, Sep. 1979, no. 89.

SEN, A. A Reply to Welfarism: A Defence against Sen’s Attack. Economic Journal, Jun. 1981, no. 91.

SEN, A. The Profit Motive. Lloyds Bank Review, Jan. 1983, no. 147.

SEN, A. Goods and People. Proceedings of the Seventh World Congress of the International Economic Association. London: Macmillan, 1987.

SEN, A. The Concept of Well-being. In Essays on Economic Progress and Welfare: In Honour of I. G. Patel. Edited by S. Guhan, M. Shroff. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

SEN, A. Welfare Economics and the Real World. Acceptance paper for the Frank Seidman Distinguished Award in Political Economy, published by P. K. Seidman Foundation, Memphis, 1986.

SEN, A. Justice. In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Macmillan, 1987.

SEN, A. Social Välfärd (Social Welfare). In Annual Report of the Swedish Economics Council, 1991.

SEN, A. Money and Value: On the Ethics and Economics of Finance. The First Baffi Lecture. Rome: Bank of Italy, 1991.

SEN, A. Welfare Economics and Population Ethics. Presented at the Nobel Jubilee Symposium on Population, Development and Welfare. Lund University, 1991.

SEN, A. Welfare, Preference and Freedom. Journal of Econometrics, 1991, no. 50.

SEN, A. Markets and Freedoms. Oxford Economic Papers, 1993, no. 45.

SEN, A. The Economics of Life and Death. Scientific American, 1993, no. 266.

SEN, A. On the Foundations of Welfare Economics: Utility, Capability and Practical Reason. In Ethics and Economics. Edited by F. H. Hahn et al. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

SEN, A. Markets and the Freedom to Choose. In The Ethical Foundations of the Market Economy. Edited by Horst Siebert. Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1994.

SEN, A. Demography and Welfare Economics. Empirica, Austrian Economic Association, 1995.

ECONOMIC MEASUREMENT

SEN, A. On the Development of Basic Economic Indicators to Supplement GNP Measures. United Nations Economic Bulletin for Asia and the Far East, 1973, no. 24.

SEN, A., DASGUPTA, P., STARRETT, D. Notes on the Measurement of Inequality. Journal of Economic Theory, Apr. 1973, no. 6.

SEN, A. Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment: Some Conceptional Issues in Measurement. Sankya: The Indian Journal of Statistics, Jun./Dec. 1974, no. 36.

SEN, A. Real National Income. Review of Economic Studies, Feb. 1976, no. 43.

SEN, A. Poverty: An Ordinal Approach to Measurement. Econometrica, Mar. 1976, no. 44.

SEN, A. Ethical Measurement of Inequality: Some Difficulties. In Personal Income Distribution. Edited by W. Krelle, A. F. Shorrocks. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1978.

SEN, A. Issues in the Measurement of Poverty. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 1979, no. 81.

SEN, A. The Welfare Basis of Real Income Comparisons. Journal of Economic Literature, Mar. 1979, no. 17.

SEN, A. The Welfare Basis of Real Income Comparisons: A Reply. Journal of Economic Literature, Dec. 1980, no. 18.

SEN, A. Poor, Relatively Speaking. Oxford Economics Papers, Aug. 1983, no. 35.

SEN, A. The Living Standard. Oxford Economic Papers, Aug. 1984, no. 36.

SEN, A. A Sociological Approach to the Measurement of Poverty: A Reply to Professor Peter Townsend. Oxford Economic Papers, Nov. 1985, no. 37.

SEN, A. The Standard of Living. In Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Edited by S. McMurrin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

SEN, A. The Nature of Inequality. In Issues in Contemporary Economics: Markets and Welfare. Edited by K. J. Arrow. London: Macmillan, 1991.

SEN, A. Live Expectancy and Inequality: Some Conceptual Issues. In Development and Change. Edited by P. Bardhan et al. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

SEN, A. The Concept of Wealth. In The Wealth of Nations in the Twentieth Century. Edited by Ramon H. Mayers. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1996.

SEN, A. From Income Inequality to Economic Inequality. Southern Economic Journal, 1997, no. 64.

SEN, A. Should Inequality and Poverty Measures be Decomposable? Second Soumitra Chakravarti Memorial Lecture. Calcutta Statistical Association Bulletin, Mar./Jun. 1998, no. 48.

AXIOMATIC CHOICE THEORY

SEN, A. Quasi-transitivity, Rational Choice and Collective Decisions. Review of Economic Studies, Jul. 1969, no. 36.

SEN, A. Choice Functions and Revealed Preference. Review of Economic Studies, Jul. 1971, no. 38.

SEN, A., MAJUMDAR, M. A Note on Representing Partial Orderings. Review of Economic Studies, Oct. 1976, no. 43.

SEN, A. Rationality and Uncertainty. Theory and Decision, 1985, no. 18.

SEN, A. Information and Invariance in Normative Choice. In Social Choice and Public Decision Making: Essays in Honor of Kenneth J. Arrow. Edited by W. P. Heller, R. Starr, D. A. Starett. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1986.

SEN, A. Rational Behaviour. In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Macmillan, 1987.

SEN, A. Non-Binary Choice and Preference: A Tribute to Stig Kanger. In Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science IX. Edited by D. Prawitz et al. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1994.

RATIONALITY AND ECONOMIC BEHAVIOUR

SEN, A. Behaviour and the Concept of Preference. Economica, Aug. 1973, no. 45.

SEN, A. Rational Fools: A Critique of the Behavioural Foundations of Economic Theory. Philosophy and Public Affairs, Summer 1977, no. 6.

SEN, A. Plural Utility. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 1980-81, no. 80.

SEN, A. Goals, Commitment and Identity. Journal of Law, Economics and Organisation, Fall 1985, no. 1.

SEN, A. Rationality, Interest and Identity. In Development, Democracy, and the Art of Trespassing. Edited by A. Foxley, M. McPherson, G. O’Donnell. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1986.

SEN, A. Adam Smith’s Prudence. In Theory and Reality in Development. Edited by S. Lall, F. Steward. London: Macmillan, 1986.

SEN, A. Utility: Ideas and Terminology. Economics and Philosophy, 1991, no. 7.

SEN, A. Does Business Ethics Make Economic Sense? Journal of Business Ethics, 1993.

SEN, A. On Corruption and Organised Crime, adress to the Italian Parliament’s AntiMafia Commission, Rome, 1993.

SEN, A. Economic Wealth and Moral Sentiments. Zurich: Bank Hofmann, 1994.

SEN, A. The Formulation of Rational Choice. American Economic Review, May 1994, no. 84.

SEN, A. Moral Codes and Economic Success. In Market Capitalism and Moral Values. Edited by Samuel Brittan, Alan Hamlin. Aldershot: Elgar, 1995.

SEN, A. Is the Idea of Purely Internal Consistency of Choice Bizzare? In Language, World and Reality. Edited by J. E. J. Altham, T. R. Harrison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

SEN, A. Maximization and the Act of Choice. Econometrica, 1997, no. 65.

ECONOMIC METHODOLOGY

SEN, A. The Concepts of Efficiency. In Contemporary Issues in Economics. Edited by M. Parkin, A. R. Nobay. Manchester University Press, 1975.

SEN, A. On the Labour Theory of Value: Some Methodological Issues. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1978, no. 2.

SEN, A. Interpersonal Comparisons of Welfare. In Economics and Human Welfare. Edited by M. Boskin. New York: Academic Press, 1980.

SEN, A. Description as Choice. Oxford Economic Papers, Nov. 1980, no. 32.

SEN, A. Accounts, Actions and Values: Objectivity of Social Science. In Social Theory and Political Practice. Edited by C. Lloyd. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.

SEN, A. Prediction and Economic Theory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1986, no. 407.

SEN, A. Freedom of Choice: Concept and Content. European Economic Review, 1988, no. 32.

SEN, A. Economic Methodology: Heterogenity and Relevance. Social Research, Summer 1989, no. 56.

SEN, A. Amiya Kumar Dasgupta: An Obituary. Economic Journal, 1994, no. 104.

SEN, A. Rationality, Joy and Freedom. Critical Review, Fall 1996, no. 10.

SEN, A. Foreword. In Economics, Values and Organization. Edited by Avner Ben-Ner, Louis Putterman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

FOOD, FAMINES AND HUNGER

SEN, A. Famines as Failures of Exchange Entitlements. Economic and Political Weekly, 1976, Special Number 11.

SEN, A. On the Approach to Planning against Hunger. Ceres: FAO Review on Agriculture and Development, Jul./Aug. 1977, no. 58.

SEN, A. Starvation and Exchange Entitlements: A General Approach and Its Application to the Great Bengal Famine. Cambridge Journal of Economics, Mar. 1977, no. 1.

SEN, A. Famines. World Development, 1980.

SEN, A. Famine Mortality: A Study of the Bengal Famine of 1943. In Peasants in History. Edited by E. J. Hobsbawm. London: Oxford University Press, 1980.

SEN, A. Ingredients of Famine Analysis: Availability and Entitlements. Quarterly Journal of Economics. Aug. 1981, no. 95.

SEN, A. Food Problem: Theory and Policy. Third World Quarterly, Jun. 1982.

SEN, A. Food Battles: Conflicts in the Access to Food. Food and Nutrition, 1984, no. 10.

SEN, A. The Causes of Famine: A Reply. Food Policy, May 1986, no. 11.

SEN, A. Food, Economics and Entitlements. Lloyd Bank Review, 1986, no. 160.

SEN, A. Africa and India: What Do We Have to Learn from Each Other?. In Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress of the International Economic Association. vol. I. London: Macmillan, 1986.

SEN, A.. Reply: Famine and Mr. Bowbrick. Food Policy, Feb. 1987, no. 12.

SEN, A. Hunger and Entitlement. Helsinky: World Institute of Development Economics Research, 1987.

SEN, A. Food and Freedom. Text of Sir John Crawford Memorial Lecture. Washington D.C., 1987.

SEN, A. Entitlements and the Chinese Famine. Food Policy, Jun. 1990, no. 15.

SEN, A. Food Entitlement and Economic Chains. In Hunger in History. Edited by L. F. Newman. Blackwell, 1990.

SEN, A. Public Action to Remedy Hunger. New York: The Hunger Project, 1990.

SEN, A. The Causation and Prevention of Famines: A Reply. Journal of Peasant Studies, 1993.

SEN, A. The Political Economy of Hunger: On Reasoning and Participation, address to the Global Hunger Conference of the World Bank, 1993. Proceedings.

SEN, A. Population and Reasoned Agency: Food, Fertility and Economic Development. In Population, Economic Development, and the Environment. Edited by k. Lindahl-Kiessling, H. Landberg. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

SEN, A. Nobody Need Starve. Granta, Winter 1995, no. 52.

SEN, A. Famine as Alienation. In State, Market and Development: Essays in Honour of Rehman Sobhan. Dhaka: The University Press Limited, 1996.

SEN, A. Economic Interdependence and the World Food Summit. Development, 1996, no. 4.

GENDER INEQUALITIES AND FAMILY ECONOMICS

SEN, A., KYNCH, J. Indian Women: Well-being and Survival. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1983, no. 7.

SEN, A. Economics and the Family. Asian Development Review, 1983, no. 1.

SEN, A., SENGUPTA, S. Malnutrition of Rural Children and the Sex Bias. Economic and Political Weekly, 1983, Annual Number 18.

SEN, A. Women, Technology and Sexual Divisions. Trade and Development, New York: United Nations. 1985, no. 6.

SEN, A. Family and Food: Sex-Bias in Poverty. In Rural Poverty in South Asia. Edited by P. Bardhan, T. N. Srinivasan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

SEN, A. Women’s Survival as a Development Problem. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Nov. 1989.

SEN, A. Gender and Cooperative Conflicts. In Persistent Inequalities. Edited by Irene Tinker. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

SEN, A. Missing Women. British Medical Journal, Mar. 1992, no. 304.

SEN, A. Gender Inequality and Theories of Justice. In Women, Culture and Development. Edited by Martha Nussbaum, Jonathan Glover. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

SEN, A. Population Policy: Authoritarianism versus Cooperation. New Delhi: MacArthur Foundation. Aug. 1995.

SEN, A. Agency and Well-Being: The Development Agenda. In A Commitment to the World’s Women. Edited by N. Heyzer et al. New York: UNIFEM, 1996.

SEN, A. Fertility and Coercion. The University of Chicago Law Review, Summer 1996, no. 63.

CAPITAL, GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION

SEN, A. A Note on Tinbergen on the Optimum Rate of Saving. Economic Journal, Dec. 1957, no. 67.

SEN, A. On Optimizing the Rate of Saving. Economic Journal, Sep. 1961, no. 71.

SEN, A., RAJ, K. N. Alternative Patterns of Growth under Conditions of Stagnant Export Earnings. Oxford Economic Papers, Feb. 1961, no. 13.

SEN, A., RAJ, K. N. Alternative Patterns of Growth: A Reply. Oxford Economic Papers, Jun. 1962, no. 14.

SEN, A. Neo-Classical and Neo-Keynesian Theories of Distribution. Economic Record, Mar. 1963, no. 39.

SEN, A. The Money Rate of Interest in the Pure Theory of Growth. In Theories of the Rate of Interest. Edited by F. Hahn, Brechling. London: Macmillan, 1963.

SEN, A. Terminal Capital and Optimum Savings. In Socialism, Capitalism and Economic Growth. Edited by C. Feinstein. Cambridge University Press, 1967.

SEN, A. On Some Debates in Capital Theory. Economica, Aug. 1974, no. 41.

SEN, A. Minimal Conditions for the Monotonicity of Capital Value, Journal of Economic Theory, Dec. 1975, no. 11.

SEN, A. Growth Economics: What and Why? In Economic Growth and the Structure of Long-term Development. Edited by L. Pasinetti, R. Solow. London: Macmillan, 1994.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

SEN, A. Some Notes on the Choice of Capital-Intensity in Development Planning. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Nov. 1957, no. 71.

SEN, A. A Note on Foreign Exchange Requirements of Development Plans. Economia Internazionale, 1957, no. 10.

SEN, A. A Note on the Mahalanobis Model of Sectoral Planning. Arthaniti, May 1958, no. 1.

SEN, A. Choice of Capital-Intensity Further Considered. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Aug. 1959, no. 73.

SEN, A. The Choice of Agricultural Techniques in Underdeveloped Countries. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Apr. 1959, no. 7.

SEN, A. Peasants and Dualism with or without Surplus Labor. Journal of Political Economy, Oct. 1966, no. 74.

SEN, A. Interrelations between Project, Sectoral and Aggregate Planning. Economic Bulletin for Asia and the Far East, 1970, no. 21.

SEN, A. Strategies of Economic Development: Feasibility Constraints and Planning. In Economic Development in South Asia. Edited by E. A. G. Robinson, M. Kidron. London: Macmillan, 1970.

SEN, A. The Philippines Economy: A Study, Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. Reprinted in United Nations Economic Bulletin for Asia and the Far East, Dec. 1971, no. 22.

SEN, A. Discord in Harmony: The So-called New International Economic Order. Presented at the Keio International Symposium, December 1979.

SEN, A. Economic Development. In China’s Development Experience in Comparative Perspective. Edited by R. F. Dernberger. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1981.

SEN, A. Public Action and the Quality of Life in Developing Countries. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Nov. 1981, no. 43.

SEN, A. Carrots, Sticks and Economics: Perception Problems in Economics. Indian Economic Review, Jan./Jun. 1983, no. 18.

SEN, A. Development: Which Way Now? Economic Journal, Dec. 1983, no. 93.

SEN, A. Planning and the Judgment of Economic Progress. Review of Indian Planning Process. Proceedings of the Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the Indian Statistical Institute. Calcutta: I. S. I., 1986.

SEN, A. Economic Distance and the Living Standard. In World Economy in Transition. Edited by A. G. Drabek, A. Ewing, K. A. Patel. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1986.

SEN, A. Sri Lanka’s Achievements: How and When? In Rural Poverty in South Asia. Edited by P. Bardhan, T. N. Srinivasan. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1988.

SEN, A. The Concept of Development, Chapter 1. In Handbook of Development Economics. Edited by H. Chenery, T. N. Srinivasan. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1988.

SEN, A. Public Action for Social Security. In Social Security in Developing Countries. Edited by E. Ahmed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

SEN, A. What Did You Learn in the World Today? American Behavioral Scientist, May/Jun. 1991, no. 34.

SEN, A. Life and Death in China: A Reply. World Development, 1992, no. 20.

SEN, A. The Political Economy of Targeting. Keynote Address to the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics, World Bank, 1992. In Public Spending and the Poor. Edited by D. van de Walle, K. Nead. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1995.

SEN, A. Sukhamoy Chakravarty: An Appreciation. In Sukhamoy Chakravarty. Edited by Kaushik Basu, Mukul Majumdar. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993.

SEN, A. Why Does Poverty Persist in Rich Countries? In Urban Poverty and Human Dignity. Edited by P. Guidicini, G. Pieretti. Milan: Franco Angeli, 1994.

SEN, A. Population: Delusion and Reality. New York Review of Books, Sep. 22, 1994, no. 41.

SEN, A. Economic Regress: Concepts and Features. Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1993. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank, 1995.

SEN, A. Economic Development and Social Change: India and China in Comparative Perspectives. Prospect, Oct. 1995.

SEN, A. Development Thinking at the Beginning of the 21st Century. In Economic and Social Development into the XXI Century. Edited by Louis Emmerij. Washington, DC: Interamerican Development Bank, and Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

SEN, A., ANAND, S. Concepts of Human Development and Povety: A Multi-dimensional Perspective. Human Development Papers 1997. New York: UNDP, 1997.

SEN, A. What’s the Point of a Development Strategy? In Development Strategy and the Management of the Market Economy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.

SEN, A. Mortality as an Indicator of Economic Success and Failure. Innocenti Lecture, UNICEF, Florence, Italy, March 1995.

PROJECT EVALUATION AND COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

SEN, A. On the Usefulness of Used Machines. Review of Economics and Statistics, Aug. 1962, no. 44.

SEN, A. Isolation, Assurance and the Social Rate of Discount. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Feb. 1967, no. 81.

SEN, A. General Criteria of Industrial Project Evaluation. In Evaluation of Industrial Projects. New York: United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 1968.

SEN, A. The Role of Policy-Makers in Project Formulation and Evaluation. Industrialization and Productivity, Bulletin 13. New York: United Nations, 1969.

SEN, A. Choice of Techniques: A Critical Survey of a Class of Debates. In Planning for Advanced Skills and Technologies, Industrial Planning and Programming Series No. 3. New York: United Nations, 1969.

SEN, A. Control Areas and Accounting Prices: An Approach to Economic Evaluation. Economic Journal, 1972, vol. 82.

SEN, A. Approaches to the Choice of Discount Rates for Social Cost Benefit Analysis. In Discounting for Time and Risk in Energy Policy. Edited by R. Lind. Washington, D. C.: Resources for the Future, 1982.

EDUCATION AND MANPOWER PLANNING

SEN, A. A Planning Model for the Educational Requirements of Economic Development; Comments, OECD. Residual Factor and Economic Growth. Paris, 1964.

SEN, A. Economic Approaches to Education and Manpower Planning. Indian Economic Review, New Series, I, Apr. 1966.

SEN, A. Education, Vintage and Learning by Doing. Journal of Human Resources, Fall 1966, no. 1.

SEN, A. Models of Educational Planning and their Applications. Journal of Development Planning, 1970, no. 2.

SEN, A. Aspect of Indian Education, text of Lal Bahadur Shastri Memorial Lecture 1970. Reprinted in Aspects of Indian Economic Development. Edited by P. Chaudhuri. London: Allen and Unwin, 1972.

SEN, A. A Quantitative Study of Brain Drain from the Developing Countries to the United States. Journal of Development Planning, 1971, no. 3.

SEN, A. Brain Drain: Causes and Effects. In Science and Technology in Economic Growth. Edited by B. R. Williams. London: Macmillan, 1973.

SEN, A., DRÉZE, J. Basic Education as a Political Issue. Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, Jan. 1995, no. 9.

LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT

SEN, A. Unemployment, Realative Prices and the Savings Potential. Indian Economic Review, Aug. 1957.

SEN, A. Surplus Labour and the Degree of Mechanization. In Economic Development with Special Reference to East Asia. Edited by K. Berrill. London: Macmillan, 1964.

SEN, A. Employment, Institutions and Technology. International Labour Review, Jul. 1965, no. 112.

SEN, A. Dimensions of Unemployment in India, Convocation Address. Calcutta: Indian Statistical Institute, 1973.

SEN, A. Labour and Technology. In Policies for Industrial Progress in Development Countries. Edited by J. Cody, H. Hughes, D. Walls. New York, 1980.

SEN, A. Inequality, Unemployment and Contemporary Europe. International Labour Review, 1997, no. 136.

THE INDIAN ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

SEN, A. An Aspect of Indian Agriculture. Economic Weekly, Annual Number, 1962, no. 16.

SEN, A. Working Capital in the Indian Economy. In Pricing and Fiscal Policies. Edited by P. N. Rosenstein-Rodan. London: Allen and Unwin, 1964.

SEN, A. Size of Holdings and Productivity. Economic Weekly, Annual Number, 1964, no. 16.

SEN, A. The Commodity Pattern of British Enterprise in Early Indian Industrialization 1854-1914. In the Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Economic History. Paris, 1965.

SEN, A. The Pattern of British Enterprise in India 1854-1914: A Causal Analysis. In Social and Economic Change. Edited by B. Singh, V. B. Singh. Bombay: Allied Publishers, 1967.

SEN, A. Surplus Labour in India: A Critique of Schultz’s Statistical Test. Economic Journal, Mar. 1967, no. 77.

SEN, A., CHAUDHURI, D., DURGAPUR, M. Fertilizer Project: An Economic Evaluation, Indian Economic Review, Apr. 1970, no. 5.

SEN, A. Poverty and Economic Development. Published text of Vikram Sarabhai Memorial Lecture. Ahmedabad, 1976.

SEN, A. How Is India Doing? The New York Review of Books, Christmas Number, 1982, no. 21.

SEN, A., NUSSBAUM, M. Internal Criticism and Indian Rationalist Traditions. In Relativism: Interpretation and Confrontation. University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.

SEN, A. Indian Development: Lessons and Non-lessons. Daedalus, 1989, no. 18.

SEN, A. The Threats to Secular India. The New York Review of Books, Apr. 8, 1993, no. 40.

SEN, A. India and the West. The New Republic, Jun. 7 1993.

SEN, A. Indian Pluralism. India International Centre Quarterly, Monsoon, 1993.

SEN, A. Our Culture, Their Culture. Calcutta: Nandan, 1996. Republished in New Republic, Apr. 1 1996.

SEN, A. Secularism and Its Discontents. In Unravelling the Nation: Sectarian Conflict and India’s Secular Identity. Edited by Kaushik Basu, S. Subramahmyam. Penguin Books, 1996.

SEN, A. On Interpreting India’s Past. In Nationalism, Democracy and Development. Edited by Sugata Bose, Ayesha Jalal. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996.

SEN, A. Indian Traditions and Western Imagination. Daedalus, Spring 1997, no. 126.

SEN, A. Radical Needs and Moderate Reforms. In Indian Development: Selected Regional Perspectives. Edited by J. Dreze, A. Sen. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

SEN, A. The Vision That Worked. Times Literary Supplement, Aug. 1997.

SEN, A. Tagore and His India. The New York Review of Books, Jun. 26 1997.

SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND LEGAL PHILOSOPHY

SEN, A. Determinism and Historical Predictions. Enquiry, 1959, no. 2.

SEN, A., RUNCIMAN, W. G. Games, Justice and the General Will. Mind, Sep. 1965, no. 74.

SEN, A., RUNCIMAN, W. G. Prisoner’s Dilemma and Social Justice: A Reply. Mind, 1974, no. 83.

SEN, A. Ethical Issues in Income Distribution: National and International. In The World Economic Order: Past and Prospects. Edited by Grassman, E. Lundberg. London: Macmillan, 1981.

SEN, A. The Right Not To Be Hungry. In Contemporary Philosophy, 2. Edited by G. Floistad. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1982.

SEN, A. Rights and Capabilities. In Morality and Objectivity. Edited by T. Honderich. London: Routledge, 1985.

SEN, A. Rights as Goals, Austin Lecture to the U. K. Association for Legal and Social Philosophy. In Equality and Discrimination: Essays in Freedom and Justice. Edited by S. Guest, A. Milne. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1985.

SEN, A. The Moral Standing of the Market. Social Philosophy and Policy, 1985, no. 3.

SEN, A. The Right to Take Personal Risks. In Values and Risk. Edited by D. MacLean. Totowa, N. J.: Rowman and Allanheld, 1986.

SEN, A. Property and Hunger. Economics and Philosophy, 1988, no. 4.

Capability and Well-being. In The Quality of Life. Edited by M. Nussbaum, A. Sen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

SEN, A. Objectivity and Position, Lindley Lecture. Kansas: University of Kansas, 1992.

SEN, A. On the Darwinian View of Progress, Annual Darwin Lecture 1991. London Review of Books, 5 Nov. 1992, no. 14.

SEN, A. Positional Objectivity. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1993, no. 22.

SEN, A. On the Darwinian View of Progress: A Reply. Population and Development Review, 1994.

SEN, A. Freedom, Capabilities and Public Action: A Response. Notizie di Politeia, 1996, no. 12.

SEN, A. Human Rights and Asian Values. New Republic, Jul. 1997, no. 14 & 21.

SEN, A. Objectivity and Position: Assesment of Health and Well-being. In Health and Social Change in International Perspective. Edited by Lincoln Chen, Arthur Kleinman. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

SEN, A. Reason before Identity, Romanes Lecture, Oxford University. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

SEN, A. Human Rights and Economic Achievements. In The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights. Edited by J. R. Bauer, D. R. Bell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

ETHICS AND MORAL PHILOSOPHY

SEN, A. Hume’s Law and Hare’s Rule. Philosophy, Jan. 1966.

SEN, A. The Nature and Classes of Prescriptive Judgements. Philosophical Quarterly, Jan. 1967, no. 17.

SEN, A. Choice, Ordering and Morality. In Practical Reason. Edited by S. Korner. Oxford: Blackwell, 1974.

SEN, A. Rawl versus Bentham: An Axiomatic Examination of the Pure Distribution Problem. Theory and Decision, 1974, no. 4.

SEN, A. Informational Analysis of Moral Principles. In Rational Action. Edited by Ross Harrison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

SEN, A6. Utilitarianism and Welfarism. Journal of Philosophy, Sep. 1979, no. 76.

SEN, A. Equality of What? In Tanner Lecture on Human Values, volume 1. Edited by S. McMurrin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

SEN, A. A Positive Concept of Negative Freedom. In Ethics: Foundations, Problems, and Applications, Proceedings of the 5th International Wittgenstein Symposium. Edited by E. Morscher, R. Stanzinger. Vienna: Holder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1981.

SEN, A. Rights and Agency. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1982, no. 11.

SEN, A. Liberty as Control: An Appraisal. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 1982, no. 7.

SEN, A. Liberty and Social Choice. Journal of Philosophy, Jan. 1983, no. 80.

SEN, A. Evaluator Relativity and Consequential Evaluation. Philosophy and Public Affairs, Spring 1983, no. 12.

SEN, A. Well-being, Agency and Freedom: The Dewey Lectures 1984. Journal of Philosophy, Apr. 1985, no. 82.

SEN, A. Individual Freedom as a Social Commitment. The New York Review of Books, Jun. 1990, no. 16.

SEN, A. Justice: Means versus Freedoms. Philosophy and Public Affairs, Spring 1990, no. 19.

Capability and Well-being. In The Quality of Life. Edited by M. Nussbaum, A. Sen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

SEN, A. Needs and Freedoms. New Republic, Jan. 1994, no. 10 & 17.

SEN, A. Environmental Values and Economic Reasoning. Lecture published in Nexus in Dutch. 1995, no. 13.

SEN, A. Legal Rights and Moral Rights: Old Questions and New Problems. Ration Juris, Jun. 1996, no. 9.

SEN, A. On the Status of Equality. Political Theory, Aug. 1996, no. 24.

SEN, A. Rights, Duties and Consequencies, text of Heffers Lecture, Cambridge University, 1998.

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Amartya Kumar Sen