Robert Merton Solow

Robert Merton Solow se narodil 23. srpna 1924 v Brooklynu, New York City. Rodiče byli dětmi přistěhovalců a museli si tvrdě vydělávat na živobytí, R. Solow tedy patřil k první generaci, která navštěvovala univerzitu.

Základní vzdělání získal R. Solow na veřejných školách na předměstí New Yorku a v roce 1940 získal stipendium na Harvardské universitě. Začal zde studovat sociologii, antropologii i základy ekonomie. V roce 1942 však nastoupil do armády a po válce se rozhodl pokračovat v ekonomii. Stalo se tak díky setkání s W. Leontiefem, který ho naučil chápat povahu a podstatu moderní ekonomie. Jako jeho výzkumný asistent předložil R. Solow řadu kapitálových koeficientů pro input-output model. V letech 1949 – 50 strávil rok na Columbia University, kde studoval statistiku a pravděpodobnostní modely, které se staly jeho dalším zájmem. Pracoval zde také na své disertaci, která byla věnována modelování změn v rozdělení příjmů z mezd při použití propojených markovských procesů, popisujících vývoj zaměstanosti, resp. nezaměstnanosti, a vývoj průměrné mzdy. Od roku 1950 působil R. Solow jako profesor na katedře ekonomie na MIT, kde původně vedl kursy statistiky a ekonometrie, avšak po setkání P. A. Samuelsonem v sobě odhalil instinktivního makroekonoma.

Z dnešního pohledu se nám jako nejvýznamnější jeví Solowův článek z roku 1957 „Technické změny a agregátní produkční funkce“, který kromě nastolení a řešení celé řady teoretických otázek obsahoval i empirickou analýzu dlouhodobého růstu americké ekonomiky. Z té vyplynulo, že pro ekonomický růst v období 1909 – 49 nebyla rozhodující práce a kapitál, ale technický pokrok, kterému Solow připsal 87,5% celkového vysvětlení ekonomického růstu. To bylo revolucí pro ekonomickou vědu i hospodářskou politiku. Význam kapitálových investic ustoupil do pozadí a politikové se začali zabývat technickým pokrokem a jeho urychlením. Solow tyto závěry později poněkud zjemnil a zrelativizoval.

Solowem využívaná produkční funkce (tvořící základ jeho růstových modelů) se stala pravděpodobně nejčastěji používaným analytickým nástrojem ekonomie vůbec. Je jedním z mála nástrojů moderní, vysoce matematizované ekonomické teorie, který se dostal do našich učebnic. V 60. letech u nás M. Toms s M. Hájkem aplikovali Solowovu produkční funkci na čs. poválečná data a zjistili, že u nás je příspěvek technického pokroku zatlačován do pozadí příspěvkem tradičních výrobních faktorů (na rozdíl od americké ekonomiky, kde je tomu naopak). Od té doby jsou rozlišovány dva druhy ekonomického růstu – extenzívní a intenzívní.

Solowův důraz na technický pokrok je oprávněný, méně oprávněné se však jeví jeho zaštiťování matematickými modely, které vytrhávají technický pokrok z kontextu ekonomického systému, ztotožňují ho s výdaji na vědu a výzkum, čímž přispívají k vytváření falešných představ o pravých příčinách ekonomického růstu.

R. Solow je i makroekonomem, který vidí hlavní problém soudobého kapitalismu v nezaměstnanosti, který odmítá monetaristickou doktrínu a který je zastáncem aktivních zásahů státu do ekonomiky. V období Kennedyho a Johnsonovy administrativy byl členem Rady ekonomických poradců prezidenta a poté patřil mezi prominentní kritiky Reaganovy hospodářské politiky. Byl též angažován v celé řadě dobových sporů.

Robert M. Solow patří mezi nejvýznamnější představitele neoklasické syntézy (syntézy neoklasické mikroekonomie s keynesiánskou makroekonomií). Jelikož však jsou jeho teorie růstu spíše teoriemi dlouhého období a v celých poválečných letech dominovaly jevy krátkodobé, jeho dílo bylo oceněno s určitým zpožděním.

Knihy

SOLOW, R. M., DORFMAN, R., SAMUELSON, P. A. Linear Programming and Economic Analysis. McGraw-Hill, 1958.

SOLOW, R. M. Capital Theory and the Rate of Return . (DeVries Lectures), Amsterdam: North-Holland,  1963.

SOLOW, R. M. The Nature and Sources of Unemployment in the United States . (Wicksell Lectures, 1964), Stockholm: Almqvist and Wicksell, 1964.

SOLOW, R. M. Growth Theory: An Exposition . (The Radcliffe Lectures), Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.

SOLOW, R. M. Price Expectations and the Behavior of the Price Level. Manchester University Press, 1969.

SOLOW, R. M. The Story of a Social Experiment and Some Reflections . (Geary Lecture), Dublin: Economic and Social Research Institute, 1980.

SOLOW, R. M. Reflections on Saving Behavior, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Conference Proceedings on Government Policy and Saving, 1982.

Články

SOLOW, R. M. Review of L. Klein: Economic Fluctuations in the U.S., 1921-1941. Mechanical Engineering, 1950.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of W.H. Nicholls: Labor Productivity Functions in Meat Packing. Review of Economics and Statistics, August 1950.

SOLOW, R. M. A Note on Dynamic Multipliers. Econometrica, July 1951.

SOLOW, R. M. Some Long Run Aspects of the Distribution of Wage Incomes. Econometrica, July 1951.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of T.C. Koopmans (ed.): Statistical Inference in Dynamic Economic Models. Review of Economics and Statistics, November 1951.

SOLOW, R. M., ARROW, K. J., SHEPHARD, R. An Econometric Model of Interindustry Flows. abstract, Econometrica, July 1952.

SOLOW, R. M. On the Structure of Linear Models. Econometrica, January 1952.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of W.E. Deming: Some Theory of Sampling. Review of Econometrics and Statistics, May 1952.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of R. Dorfman: Application of Linear Programming to the Theory of the Firm. Journal of American Statistical Association, June 1952.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of T.C. Koopmans (ed.): Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation. Journal of American Statistical Association, June 1952.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of R. Roy (ed.): Cahiers du Seminaire ď Econometrie, no. 1, Journal of American Statistical Association, December 1952.

SOLOW, R. M. A Note on the Price Level and Interest Rate in a Growth Model. Review of Economic Studies, no. 54, 1953.

SOLOW, R. M., SAMUELSON, P. A. Balanced Growth under Constant Returns to Scale. Econometrica, July 1953.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of L. Klein: A Textbook of Econometrics. American Economic Review, December 1953.

SOLOW, R. M. A New Survey of Demand Analysis. Review of Economics and Statistics, February 1954.

SOLOW, R. M. The Survival of Mathematical Economics. Review of Economics and Statistics, November 1954.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of T. Haavelmo: A Study in the Theory of Economic Evolution. American Economic Review, March 1955.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of R.H. Tuck: An Essay on the Economic Theory of Rank. Journal of American Statistical Association, September 1955.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of English translation of L. Walras: Elements of Pure Economics. Econometrica, October 1955.

SOLOW, R. M. The Production Function and the Theory of Capital. Review of Economic Studies, vol. 23, no. 2, 1955-56.

SOLOW, R. M. A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 1956.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of Prais and Houthakker: The Analysis of Family Budgets. Journal of American Statistical Association, June 1956, 398-400.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of International Economic Papers. no. 5, American Economic Review, December 1956, 981-983.

SOLOW, R. M., SAMUELSON, P. A. A Complete Capital Model Involving Heterogeneous Capital Goods. Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 1956.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of Schoeffler: The Failures of Economics. A Diagnostic Study. Review of Economics and Statistics, February 1957.

SOLOW, R. M. Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function. Review of Economics and Statistics, August 1957.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of D. Hamberg: Economic Growth and Instability. Econometrica, October 1957, 612-613.

SOLOW, R. M., ARROW, K. J. Gradient Methods for Constrained Maxima with Weakened Assumptions. Chapter in Studies in Linear and Nonlinear Programming, Arrow et al., 166-176, Stanford University Press, 1958.

SOLOW, R. M., DORFMAN, R., SAMUELSON, P. A. Linear Programming and Economic Analysis. McGraw-Hill, 1958.

SOLOW, R. M. A Skeptical Note on the Constancy of Relative Shares. American Economic Review, September 1958, p. 618-631.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of T. Barna (ed.): The Structural Interdependence of the Economy. Econometrica, January 1958, p. 173-174.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of T. Koopmans: Three Essays on the State of Economic Science. Journal of Political Economy, April 1958, p. 178-179.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of W. Krelle and H. Haller: Lohnhohe und Beschaftigung. Econometrica, July 1958.

SOLOW, R. M. Technical Progress and the Production Function: A Reply. Review of Economics and Statistics, November 1958.

SOLOW, R. M. Competitive Valuation in a Dynamic Input-Output System. Econometrica, 27, 1959.

SOLOW, R. M. Investment and Technical Progress, in Mathematical Methods in the Social Sciences Arrow, Karlin & Suppes (eds.), Stanford University Press, 1959.

SOLOW, R. M. On the Concepts and Measures of Changes in Productivity: Comment. Review of Economics and Statistics, August 1959.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of S. Weintraub: An Approach to the Theory of Income Distribution. Journal of Political Economy, August 1959.

SOLOW, R. M. Reply to Professor Eisner, „Is Factor Substitution a Crime and If So, How Bad?. Economic Journal, September 1959.

SOLOW, R. M. Investment and Economic Growth: Some Comments. Productivity Measurement Review, November 1959.

SOLOW, R. M. Income Inequality Since the War. Chapter in Postwar Economic Trends, R.E. Freeman (ed.), Harper and Bros., New York, 1960.

SOLOW, R. M. On a Family of Lag Distributions. Econometrica, April 1960.

SOLOW, R. M., SAMUELSON, P. A. Analytic Aspects of Anti-Inflation Policy. American Economic Review, May 1960.

SOLOW, R. M. A Wicksellian Model of Distributive Shares. In The Theory of Capital, D.C. Hague (ed.), Macmillan, 1961.

SOLOW, R. M. Note on Uzawa´s Two-Sector Model of Economic Growth, Review of Economic Studies. 1961.

SOLOW, R. M. Productivity and National Performance. Technology Review, April 1961.

SOLOW, R. M., ARROW, K. Capital Labor Substitution and Economic Efficiency. Review of Economics and Statistics, August 1961.

SOLOW, R. M. Economic Growth and Housing. Conference on Savings and Residential Financing 1962, Proceedings, 1962, p. 119-147.

SOLOW, R. M. Some Problems of the Theory and Practice of Economic Planning (review article). Economic Development and Cultural Change, January 1962.

SOLOW, R. M. Technical Progress, Capital Formation and Economic Growth. American Economic Review, May 1962.

SOLOW, R. M. Substitution and Fixed Coefficients in the Theory of Capital. Review of Economic Studies, June 1962, p. 207-218.

SOLOW, R. M. Problems that Don´t Worry Me. Technology Review, July 1962, p. 43-44 and 64.

SOLOW, R. M. Investment for Growth. New Republic, October 20 1962, p. 14-15.

SOLOW, R. M. Policy for Full Employment. Industrial Relations, October 1962, p. 1-14.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of W. Salter: Productivity and Technical Change. Review of Economics and Statistics, November 1962, p. 502-503.

SOLOW, R. M., KAREKEN, J. Lags in Monetary Policy, Stabilization Policies. Commission on Money and Credit, NY, 1963, p. 14-96.

SOLOW, R. M. Heterogeneous Capital and Smooth Production Functions: An Experimental Study. Econometrica, October 1963, p. 623-645.

SOLOW, R. M. Capital, Labor and Income in Manufacturing, The Behavior of Income Shares. National Bureau of Economic Research, Princeton University Press, 1964.

SOLOW, R. M. Friedman on America´s Money. Banker, 1964, p. 710-717.

SOLOW, R. M. Economic Behaviour under Uncertainty (the Royal Society Nuffield Lecture). Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 1965, p. 444-457.

SOLOW, R. M. The Case against the Case against the Guideposts. In Guidelines, Informal Controls and the Market Place, Shultz and Aliber (eds.), University of Chicago Press, 1966, p. 41-54.

SOLOW, R. M. The Wage-Price Issue and the Guideposts., In Critical Issues in Employment Policy, Harbison and Money (eds.), Princeton University, 1966, p. 57-74.

SOLOW, R. M., TOBIN, J., von WEIZSÄCKER, C. C., YAARI, M. Neoclassical Growth with Fixed Factor Proportions. The Review of Economic Studies, vol. 33, no. 2, April 1966, p. 79-116.

SOLOW, R. M., COHEN, M. The Behavior of Help-Wanted Advertising. The Review of Economics and Statistics, February 1967, p. 108-110.

SOLOW, R. M. The New Industrial State or Son of Affluence. The Public Interest, no. 9, Fall 1967, p. 100-108, 118-119.

SOLOW, R. M. The Interest Rate and Transition between Techniques, Socialism, Capitalism and Economic Growth. C.H. Feinstein (ed.), Cambridge University Press, 1967, p. 30-39.

SOLOW, R. M. Some Recent Developments in the Theory of Production. The Theory and Empirical Analysis of Production, National Bureau of Economic Research, NY, 1967, p. 25-49.

SOLOW, R. M. Short-run Adjustment of Employment to Output. In Value, Capital and Growth, J.N. Wolfe (ed.), Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. 481-484.

SOLOW, R. M. Distribution in the Long and Short Run. In The Distribution of National Income, Marchal and Ducros (eds.), International Economic Association, London: Macmillan, 1968, p. 449-467.

SOLOW, R. M. Recent Controversy on the Theory of Inflation: An Eclectie View. In Inflation: Causes, Consequences and Control, S. Rousseas (ed.), Kazanjian Economic Foundation, 1968.

SOLOW, R. M. The Truth Further Refined: A Comment on Marris. The Public Interest, no. 11, Spring 1968, p. 47-52.

SOLOW, R. M., STIGLITZ, J. Output, Employment and Wages in the Short Run. Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 1968, p. 537-560.

SOLOW, R. M. On the Rate of Return: Reply to Pasinetti. Economic Journal, June 1970, p. 423-428.

SOLOW, R. M. Science and Ideology in Economics, /Capitalism and the Economists – A Discussion: II/. The Public Interest, no. 21, Fall 1970, p. 94-107.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of Richard M. Titmuss: The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy. „Blood and Thunder“, Yale Law Journal, vol. 80, no. 8, July 1971, p. 1696-1711.

SOLOW, R. M. The Economisť s Approach to Pollution and Its Control. Science, vol. 173, August 6, 1971, 498-503. Reprinted: Social Science, vol. 47, no. 1, Winter 1972, p. 15-25.

SOLOW, R. M. Kuznets is Termed the Father of the G.N.P.. New York Times, October 16 1971, p. 2.

SOLOW, R. M., VICKREY, W. S. Land Use in a Long Narrow City. Journal of Economic Theory, vol. 3, no. 4, December 1971, p. 430-447.

SOLOW, R. M. Some Implications of Alternative Criteria for the Firm. In The Corporate Economy, Marris and Wood (eds.), Macmillan, Chapter 10, 1971, p. 318-342.

SOLOW, R. M. Congestion, Density and the Use of Land in Transportation. Swedish Journal of Economics, vol. 74, no. 1, March 1972, p. 161-173.

SOLOW, R. M. The Economics of Pollution. Speech delivered at the San Francisco Conference on Jobs and the Environment, November 28 1972.

SOLOW, R. M. Notes on ´Doomsday Models´. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 69, no. 12, December 1972, p. 3832-3833.

SOLOW, R. M. Some Evidence on the Short-Run Productivity Puzzle. In Development and Planning, Essays in honour of Paul Rosenstein-Rodan, Jagdish N. Bhagwati and Richard S. Eckaus (eds.), London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1972.

SOLOW, R. M. On Equilibrium Models of Urban Location. Essays in Modern Economics, M. Parkin (ed.), London: Longman Group Ltd., 1973.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of Peter Passell and Leonard Ross: Affluence and Its Enemies. The Retreat from Riches, New York Times Book Review, p. 4, February 25 1973.

SOLOW, R. M. Is the End of the World at Hand?. Challenge, vol. 16, no. 1, March/April 1973, p. 39-50.

SOLOW, R. M. What Happened to Full Employment?. David Kinley Lecture at University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, December 1972, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Business, vol. 13, no. 2, Summer 1973, p. 7-20.

SOLOW, R. M. Congestion Cost and the Use of Land for Streets. The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, vol. 4, no. 2, Autumn 1973, p. 602-618.

SOLOW, R. M., BLINDER, A. S. Does Fiscal Policy Matter?. Journal of Public Economics, vol. 2, no. 4, November 1973, p. 319-337.

SOLOW, R. M. Resource Scarcity and Economic Growth. Hearing of Subcommittee on Priorities and Economy in Government of the Joint Economic Committee, December 20 1973.

SOLOW, R. M., GINZBERG, E. An Introduction to this Special Issue. The Public Interest, no. 34, Winter 1974, p. 4-13.

SOLOW, R. M., GINZBERG, E. Some Lessons of the 1960´s. The Public Interest, no. 34, Winter 1974, p. 211-220.

SOLOW, R. M. What Do We Owe to the Future?. Nebraska Journal of Economics and Business, vol. 13, no. 1, Winter 1974, p. 3-16.

SOLOW, R. M. The Economics of Resources and the Resources of Economics. Ely Lecture, 1973, American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, May 1974.

SOLOW, R. M. Intergenerational Equity and Exhaustible Resources. Review of Economic Studies, July 1974.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of John Hicks: Capital and Time, A Neo-Austrian Theory, 1973. The Economic Journal, March 1974, p. 189-192.

SOLOW, R. M. Law of Production and Laws of Algebra: The Humbug Production Function: A Comment. The Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 56, no. 1, February 1974.

SOLOW, R. M. Energy Crisis and the Environment. The Catalyst, Colorado Springs: Cutlar Publications, Inc., April 12 1974, p. 5.

SOLOW, R. M., BLINDER, A. Analytical Foundations of Fiscal Policy. In Brookings volume, The Economics of Public Finance, 1974, p. 3-118.

SOLOW, R. M. The Management of Exhaustible Resources. In Toward a Plan of Actions for Mankind, M. Marois (ed.), Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1974.

SOLOW, R. M. The Unimportance of Reswitching, Comment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 1975, p. 48-52.

SOLOW, R. M. The Intelligent Citizen´s Guide to Inflation. Public Interest, Winter 1975.

SOLOW, R. M. Down the Phillips Curve with Gun and Camera. In Inflation, Trade and Taxes, Ohio State University Press, 1976.

SOLOW, R. M., WAN, F. Y. Extraction Costs in the Theory of Exhaustible Resources. Bell Journal, Autumn 1976, p. 359-370.

SOLOW, R. M. Macro-policy and Full Employment. In Jobs for Americans, Eli Ginzberg (ed.), Prentice-Hall, 1976, p. 37-58.

SOLOW, R. M., BLINDER, A. S. Does Fiscal Policy Still Matter?. Journal of Monetary Economics, 1976, p. 506-510.

SOLOW, R. M. Optimal Fishing with a Natural Predator. In Public and Urban Economics, Essays in Honor of W.S. Vickrey, R. Grieson (ed.), Lexington Books, 1976, p. 213-224.

SOLOW, R. M. The Economics of Pollution Control. ILO Report, XIX, no. 2, Spring 1977, p. 14-17.

SOLOW, R. M. Requiem for a Rebate. The New Republic, 1977, p. 11-13.

SOLOW, R. M. Monopoly, Uncertainty, and Exploration. In Natural Resources, Uncertainty, and General Equilibrium Systems: Essays in Memory of Rafael Lusky, New York: Academic Press, 1977.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of Leff´s Swindling and Selling: The Spanish Prisoner and Other Bargains. Bell Journal of Economics, vol. 8, no. 2, 1977, p. 627-629.

SOLOW, R. M., BLINDER, A. S. Does Fiscal Policy Matter? The View From the Government Budget Restraint – A Reply. Public Finance, vol. 32, no. 3, 1977, p. 390-392.

SOLOW, R. M. What We Know and Don´t Know About Inflation. (adaption of the Killian Lectures given at M.I.T. in 1977-78), Technology Review, December 1978/January 1979.

SOLOW, R. M., BAILY, M. N.Public Service Employment as Macroeconomic Policy. In Job Creation Through Public Service Employment, National Commission for Manpower Policy, 1978.

SOLOW, R. M. Resources and Economicc Growth. American Economist, vol. XXII, no. 2, Fall 1978.

SOLOW, R. M. Alternative Approaches to Macroeconomic Theory: A Partial View. (text of the W.A. Mackintosh Lecture given at Queen´s University, Kingston, Ontario in March 1979), Canadian Journal of Economics, vol. 12, no. 3, 1979, p. 339-354.

SOLOW, R. M. Another Possible Source of Wage Stickiness. Journal of Macroeconomics, vol. 1, 1979, p. 79-82.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of Stability and Inflation. (Festschrift for A.W. Phillips), Economics, 1979, p. 310.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of The Political Economy of Inflation. F. Hirsch and J. Goldthorpe (eds.), Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 1979, p. 547-549.

SOLOW, R. M. Employment Policy in Inflationary Times. In Employing the Unemployed, Eli Ginzberg (ed.), Basic Books, NY, 1980.

SOLOW, R. M. What to Do (Macroeconomically) when OPEC Comes. In Rational Expectations and Economic Policy, Stanley Fischer (ed.), University of Chicago Press, 1980, p. 249-267.

SOLOW, R. M. On Theories of Unemployment. American Economic Review, vol. 70, March 1980, p. 1-11.

SOLOW, R. M. The Story of a Social Experiment and Some Reflections (Geary Lecture). Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, 1980.

SOLOW, R. M. Inflated Tales, Executive. Cornell University, Graduate School of Business and Public Administration, vol. 6, no. 3, Summer 1980, p. 2-3, 50-54.

SOLOW, R. M., McDONALD, I. Wage Bargaining and Employment. American Economic Review, vol. 71, December 1981, p. 896-908.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of E. Malinvaud: Profitability and Employment. Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 19, June 1981, p. 572-573.

SOLOW, R. M. Prices and Quantities, A Review Article. Public Interest, Fall 1981, p. 91-102.

SOLOW, R. M. Some Lessons from Growth Theory. In Financial Economics, Essays in Honor of Paul Cootner, W. Sharpe and C. Cootner (eds.), Prentice-Hall, 1982, p. 246-259.

SOLOW, R. M. On the Lender of Last Resort. In Financial Crises Theory, History Policy, C.P. Kindleberger and J.-P. Laffargue (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 1982, p. 237-248.

SOLOW, R. M. Where Have All the Flowers Gone? Economic Growth in the 1960´s. In Economics in the Public Service, J. Peckman and N. Simler (eds.), Norton, 1982, p. 46-83.

SOLOW, R. M. Paul Samuelson and Modern Capital Theory. In E.C. Brown and R.M. Solow (eds.), Paul Samuelson and Modern Economic Theory, McGraw-Hill, 1983, p. 169-188.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of P. Dasgupta, The Control of Resources. Journal of Economic Literature, vol. XXI, December 1983, p. 1541-1543.

SOLOW, R. M. Leif Johansen (1930-1982): A Memorial. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, vol. 85, 1983, p. 445-456.

SOLOW, R. M. Economic Development and the Development of Economics: Discussion. World Development, vol. 11, 1983, p. 891-893.

SOLOW, R. M. Keynes and the Management of Real National Income and Expenditure: Comment. In Keynes and the Modern World: Proceedings of the Keynes Centenary Conference, King´s College, Cambridge, D. Worswick and J. Trevithick (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 1983.

SOLOW, R. M. Macroconfusion: The Dilemmas of Economic Policy: Comment. In Macroeconomics, Prices and Quantities: Essays in Memory of Arthur M. Okun, J. Tobin (ed.), Brookings Institution, Washington, 1983.

SOLOW, R. M. Conversations with Neo-Keynesian Economists: The ´Older Generation´ /Interview/. In Conversations with Economists: New Classical Economists and Opponents Speak Out on the Current Controversy in Macroeconomics, by Arjo Klamer, Littlefield Publishing Company, 1983.

SOLOW, R. M. Implications of the Government Deficit for U.S. Capital Formation: Discussion. In The Economics of Large Government Deficits: Proceedings of a Conference Held at Melvin Village, NII, Oct. 1983. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Conference Series, no. 27, 1983.

SOLOW, R. M. U.S. Labor Market: Imbalance, Wage Growth, and Productivity in the 1970s: Comments and Discussion. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol. 1, 1983, p. 123-128.

SOLOW, R. M. Teaching Econíomics in the 1980s. Journal of Economic Education, vol. 14, no. 2, 1983, p. 65-68.

SOLOW, R. M. The Economics Major: What It Is and What it Should Be: Panel Disccussion. American Economic Review, vol. 72, no. 2, 1983, p. 139.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of V. Chick: Macroeconomics after Keynes. Journal of Political Economy, vol. 92, 1984, p. 784-787.

SOLOW, R. M., McDONALD, I. Union Wage Policies: a Reply. American Economic Review, vol. 74, 1984, p. 759-761.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of G. Gilder, The Spirit of Enterprise. New Republic, October 22 1984, p. 37-39.

SOLOW, R. M. Mr. Hicks and the Classics. (First Annual Hicks Lecture), In D. Collard, D. Helm, M. Scott, A.K. Sen (eds.), Economic Theory and Hicksian Themes, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984, p. 13-25.

SOLOW, R. M. Review of L. Silk: Economics in the Real World. New York Times Book Review, December 30 1984, p. 7.

SOLOW, R. M., McDONALD, I. Wages and Employment in a Segmented Labor Market. Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 1985, p. 1115-1141.

SOLOW, R. M. Economic History and Economics. American Economic Review, vol. 75, no. 2, 1985, p. 328-331.

SOLOW, R. M. Insiders and Outsiders in Wage Determination. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, vol. 87, no. 2, 1985, p. 411-428.

SOLOW, R. M. Reflections on Macroeconomic Modelling: Confessions of a DRI Addict. Eastern Economic Journal, vol. XI, 1, 1985, p. 79-83.

SOLOW, R. M. The Unemployment of Nations. Business Economics, January 1986, p. 5-12.

SOLOW, R. M. Manufacturing Wage Dispersion: An End-Game Interpretation: Comment. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1985, p. 107-110.

SOLOW, R. M. On the Intergenerational Allocation of Natural Resources. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, vol. 88, no. 1, 1986, p. 141-149.

SOLOW, R. M. Unemployment: Getting the Questions Right. Economica, vol. 53 (Supplement), 1986, p. 23-34.

SOLOW, R. M. Monopolistic Competition and the Multiplier. In Equilibrium Analysis, Essays in Honor of Kenneth J. Arrow, vol. II, W.P. Heller, R.M. Starr, and D.A. Starrett (eds.), Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 301-315.

SOLOW, R. M., HAHN, F. H. Is Wage Flexibility a Good Thing?. In Wage Rigidity and Unemployment, W. Beckerman (ed.), The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986, p. 1-19.

SOLOW, R. M. Macroeconomic Theory and Government Action. In Weltwirtschaft und Unternehmerische Strategie, K. Aiginger (ed.), Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1986, p. 19-30.

SOLOW, R. M. What Do We Know that Francis Amasa Walker Didn´t?. History of Political Economy, vol. 19, no. 2, 1987, p. 183-189.

SOLOW, R. M. What is a Nice Girl Like You Doing in a Place Like This? Macroeconomics After Fifty Years. Eastern Economic Journal, vol. XII, no. 3, 1987, p. 191-198.

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Robert Merton Solow