William Spencer Vickrey

William Spencer Vickrey se narodil 21. června roku 1914 v kanadské Victorii. V roce 1935 získal titul bakaláře na universitě v Yale. V tomtéž roce započal své postgraduální studium na Columbia University v New Yorku, kde se stal v roce 1937 magistrem a posléze v roce 1947 získal titul Ph.D. Při práci na universitě pracoval Vickrey v letech 1937 – 47 ještě jako daňový poradce. Při této činnosti získal řadu vědomostí. V roce 1951 se oženil a životní družkou mu byla Cecile Montez Thompson. Až do své smrti působil jako emeritní profesor na Columbia University.

Během svého profesionálního života se Vickrey věnoval výzkumu a vyučování. Snažil se však být též veřejně prospěšným. Navrhl například systém optimálního jízdného v metru v New Yorku (1951) a pracoval na územním plánování a dopravním systému v Indii, Argentině a Venezuele (1962 – 93). Mezi lépe známé aktivity Williama Vickreyeho patří též studie dopravního systému ve Washingtonu D.C. v padesátých letech.

William Vickrey je autorem teorie, jež umožní stanovit optimální výši zdanění tak, aby neztratilo pro podniky či poplatníky stimulační účinek. Ve 40. letech upozornil Vickrey na skutečnost, že míra zdanění ovlivňuje nejen příjem jednotlivce, ale i jeho zájem pracovat, čili nabídku práce a problém optimálního daňového systému zásadním způsobem přeformuloval a rozšířil.

Spolu se Skotem Jamesem Mirrleesem, se kterým obdržel Nobelovu cenu za ekonomii, odpověděl na stále aktuální otázky, jak mohou vlády, podniky, banky či jiné organizace sahat k důležitým, nezbytným či neodkladným strategickým rozhodnutím, aniž přitom disponují úplnými a relevantními informacemi.

Poznatky o prvcích i důsledcích rozhodovacího procesu pomohly lépe pochopit fungování pojišťovnictví, úvěrových trhů, dražeb, vnitřní organizace firem, mzdové politiky, daňových systémů, sociálního pojištění a různých konkurenčních faktorů.

Vickrey se intenzivně zabýval problémem asymetrické informace, který spočívá v tom, že dává jedné ze stran vždy možnost, aby tuto asymetrii využila ke svému vlastnímu zájmu, na úkor ostatních účastníků rozhodovacího procesu či kontraktu. Prvním řešením problému asymetrické informace při provádění aukcí se profesor Vickrey proslavil na počátku 60. let. Ve svých výzkumech analyzoval podrobně různé vlastnosti (chování účastníků, dosažené ceny apod.) jednotlivých typů aukcí a jeho cílem bylo strukturovat aukce takovým způsobem, aby produkovaly ekonomicky efektivní výsledky. Na základě své analýzy dospěl k závěru, že v té době praktikovaná tradiční metoda aukce, kde účastníci předkládají své nabídky v zalepených obálkách, může vést k neefektivním výsledkům. Rozhodování účastníků této aukce může být totiž deformováno snahou brát do úvahy i nabídky ostatních účastníků.

Pro řešení podobných deformací při aukcích navrhl Vickrey tzv. metodu „druhé nejlepší nabídky“, pro kterou se později ujal rovněž název „vickreyovská aukce“. Tato metoda se od počátku 60. let poměrně rozšířila a nyní se využívá např. při prodeji vládních cenných papírů v USA, při vypisování tendrů o účast ve veřejných projektech, vydražování vysílacího spektra apod.

Vickrey proslul též jako lítý kritik měnové unie v rámci Evropské unie. Považoval ji totiž za dobrý nápad jen pro období plné zaměstnanosti a vyzýval politiky, aby v zájmu obyvatel začali lépe chápat makroekonomické vztahy.

William Vickrey, první Kanaďan v historii Nobelovy ceny za ekonomii, zemřel náhle 11. října 1996, pouhé 3 dny po jejím udělení.

Knihy

VICKREY, W. S. Agenda for Progressive Taxation. New York: Ronald Press, 1947.

VICKREY, W. S. The Revision of the Rapid Transit Fare Structure of the City of New York. Technical Monograph, no. 3, Finance Project, Mayor’s Committee for Management Survey of the City of New York, 1952.

VICKREY, W. S. Subway Fare Decoder Circuits. Technical Monograph, no. 6, Mayor’s Committee for Management Survey of the City of New York, 1952.

VICKREY, W. S. Adapting Subway Services to Changing Traffic Patterns. Technical Monograph, no. 5, Mayor’s Committee for Management Survey of the City of New York. April, 1952.

VICKREY, W. S., SHOUP, C. S., HARRISS, L. The Fiscal System of the Federal District of Venezuela. Baltimore: Garamond Press, 1960.

VICKREY, W. S. Microstatics. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1964.

VICKREY, W. S. Metastatics and Macroeconomics. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1964.

VICKREY, W. S., SHOUP, C. S., DOSSER, D., PENNER, R. G. The Tax System of Liberia. Columbia University Press, 1971.

Další publikace

VICKREY, W. S. Patterns of Resource Use (Contributor). National Resources Committee. Washington, 1938.

VICKREY, W. S., SHOUP, C., SHIMBERG, B. L. A Comparison of Aggregate Burdens of Federal Income Tax and State Income Tax in 11 Selected States. In Studies in Current Tax Problems, Twentieth Century Fund, 1938, p. 523-961.

VICKREY, W. S., BURR, S. S. Estimating Income and Estate Tax Yields. p. 141-238.

VICKREY, W. S. Averaging of Income for Income Tax Purposes. Journal of Political Economy, 47, June 1939, p. 379-397.

VICKREY, W. S. The Effects of the Federal Revenue Acts of 1938, 1939 and 1940 on the Realization of Gains and Losses on Securities (Comment). Journal of the American Statistical Association, 36, Sept. 1941, p. 431-433.

VICKREY, W. S. The Spending Tax in Peace and War. Columbia Law Review, March 1943, p. 165-175.

VICKREY, W. S. Insurance Under the Federal Income Tax. Yale Law Journal, 52, June 1943, p. 554-585.

VICKREY, W. S. An Integrated Succession Tax. Taxes, 22, Aug. 1944, p. 368-374.

VICKREY, W. S. The Rationalization of Successive Taxation. Econometrica, 15, July-Oct. 1944, p. 215-236.

VICKREY, W. S. A Reasonable Undistributed Profits Tax. Taxes, February 1945, p. 122-127.

VICKREY, W. S. The Effect of Averaging on the Cyclical Sensitivity of the Yield of the Income Tax. Journal of Political Economy, 53, Sept. 1945, p. 275-277.

VICKREY, W. S. Measuring Marginal Utility by Reactions to Risk. Econometrica, 13, Oct. 1945, p. 319-333.

VICKREY, W. S. Fiscal Policy in Prosperity and Depression: Discussion. Proceedings of the American Economic Association, 60, Dec. 1947, p. 409-416.

VICKREY, W. S. The Effects of Integration of Corporate and Individual Income Taxes on Business. Proceeding of the National Tax Association, 46, 17-20 Nov. 1947, p. 179-188.

VICKREY, W. S. Some Objections to Marginal Cost Pricing. Journal of Political Economy, 56, June 1948, p. 218-238.

VICKREY, W. S. Limitations of Keynesian Economics. Social Research, 15, Dec. 1948, p. 403-416.

VICKREY, W. S. Some Limits to the Income Elasticity of Income Tax Yields. Review of Economics and Statistics, 31, May 1949, p. 140-144.

VICKREY, W. S. Resource Distribution Patterns and the Classification of Families. Studies in Income and Wealth, 10, p. 266-297 (reply, 324-329), NBER, 1949.

VICKREY, W. S. International Comparisons of Real National Income: A Note on Methods, by Hans Staehle: Comment. Studies in Income and Wealth, 11, p. 271-272, NBER, 1949.

VICKREY, W. S. Report on Japanese Taxation. Joint Author; The Shoup Tax Mission, General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, Tokyo, 1949.

VICKREY, W. S. Second Report on Japanese Taxation, Joint Author, The Shoup Tax Mission, Japan Tax Association, 1950.

VICKREY, W. S. Ethics and Economics: An exchange of questions between Economists and Philosophy. Goals of Economic Life, Arthur D. Ward, ed., p. 148-177, 1950.

VICKREY, W. S. Stability Through Inflation. Post-Keynesian Economics, M. Murihara, ed., Rutger’s University Press, 1954, p. 89-122.

VICKREY, W. S. The Economizing of Curb Parking Space. Traffic Engineering Magazine, Nov. 1954.

VICKREY, W. S. Rate Reduction or Increased Exemptions: The Economics of the Question. Proceedings of the National Tax Association, 1954, p. 268-295.

VICKREY, W. S. A Proposal for Revising New York’s Subway Fare Structure. Journal of the Operations Research Society of America, 3, Feb. 1955, p. 38-68.

VICKREY, W. S. Pricing in Transport and Public Utilities, Some Implications for Marginal Cost Pricing for Public Utilities. American Economic Review, May 1955, p. 605-620.

VICKREY, W. S. L’imposition des plus-values de capital. Revue de Science Financiere, 48, 1956, p. 423-437.

VICKREY, W. S. Expenditure, Capital Gains, and the Basis of Progressive Taxation. The Manchester School, Jan. 1957, p. 1-25.

VICKREY, W. S. A Note on Micro- and Macroeconomics. Common Frontiers of the Social Science, Mirra Komarovsky, ed., Glencoe, III.: Free Press, 1957, p. 376-382.

VICKREY, W. S. Transit Finance: A Review. Proceedings of the Fifty-First National Tax Conference, Philadelphia, 27-31 October 1958, p. 551-558.

VICKREY, W. S. Defense Spending and the Business Cycle. Challenge, April 1958, p. 24-28.

VICKREY, W. S. The Optimum Trend of Prices. Southern Economic Journal, 25, Jan. 1959, p. 315-326.

VICKREY, W. S. Self Policing Properties of Certain Imputation Sets, in Contributions to the Theory of Games IV, A. W. Turner and R. W. Luce, eds., Princeton University Press, 1959, p. 213-246.

VICKREY, W. S. Statement on the Pricing of Urban Street Use. Hearings: US Congress, Joint Committee on Metropolitan Washington Problems, 11, Nov. 1959, p. 466-477.

VICKREY, W. S. Reaching a Balance Between Mass Transit and Provision for Individual Automobile Traffic, 1959, p. 478-487.

VICKREY, W. S., FITCH, L., MYERS, S. Construction of Tentative Fare Structures for Washington, D.C. Regional Rapid Transit System, 1959, p. 487-507.

VICKREY, W. S. Utility, Strategy and Social Decision Rules. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 74, Nov. 1960, p. 507-535.

VICKREY, W. S. Resource Price Trends and Resource Scarcity; a Comment on the paper by H.J. Barnett and Chandler Morse. Resources for the Future, 1960.

VICKREY, W. S. Can Excises Lower Prices? Essays in Economics and Econometrics, R.W. Pfouts, ed., University of North Carolina Press, 1960, p. 165-177.

VICKREY, W. S. Statement for the Subcommittee on Economic Statistics Regarding Cost of Living Indexes. Hearings on Government Price Statistics, U.S. Congress, May 1961, p. 742-745.

VICKREY, W. S. On the Prevention of Gerrymandering. Political Science Quarterly, 76, March 1961, p. 105-110

VICKREY, W. S. Counterspeculation, Auctions, and Competitive Sealed Tenders. Journal of Finance, 16, March 1961, p. 8-37.

VICKREY, W. S. The Burden of Public Debt; Comment. American Economic Review, 51, March 1961, p. 132-137.

VICKREY, W. S. Risk, Utility and Social Policy. Social Research, Summer 1961, p. 205-217.

VICKREY, W. S. Electronic Data Processing and Tax Policy. National Tax Journal, 14, Sept. 1961, p. 271-285.

VICKREY, W. S. Welfare Economics. Encyclopedia Americana, 1961.

VICKREY, W. S. Econometrics. Collier’s Encyclopedia, 1961.

VICKREY, W. S. One Economist’s View of Philanthropy. Philanthropy and Public Policy, Frank G. Dickinson, ed., NBER, New York, 1962, p. 31-56.

VICKREY, W. S. Auctions and Bidding Games. Recent Advances in Game Theory, Princeton University Conference, 1962, p. 15-27.

VICKREY, W. S. A Proposal for Student Loans. Economics of Higher Education, Selma J. Mushkin, ed., Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, 1962, p. 268-280.

VICKREY, W. S. Notes of the Macroeconomics of Disarmament. Disarmament Journal, March 1962, p. 3-7.

VICKREY, W. S. Fiscal Strategies for Shifting $22 Billions to Civilian Economy. A Strategy for American Security: An Alternative to the 1964 Military Budget, Seymour Melman, ed., New York: Lee Offset, Inc.l, 1962, p. 21-25.

VICKREY, W. S. Pricing in Urban and Suburban Transport. American Economic Review, 52(2), May 1963, p. 452-465.

VICKREY, W. S. General and Specific Financing of Urban Services. Public Expenditure Decisions in the Urban Community, Howard G. Shaller, ed., Resources for the Future, 1963, p. 62-90.

VICKREY, W. S. Social Psychology and Economics. Perspectives in Social Psychology, Otto Klineberg and Christie, eds., Rinehart and Winston, 1965, p. 109-112.

VICKREY, W. S. Pricing as a Tool in the Coordination of Local Transportation. Transportation Economics, NBER, 1965, p. 275-296.

VICKREY, W. S. Optimization of Traffic and Facilities. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 1 (2), Jan. 1967, p. 123-136.

VICKREY, W. S. Economic Criteria for Optimum Rates of Depletion. Extractive Resources and Taxation, Mason Gaffney, ed., Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967, p. 315-330.

VICKREY, W. S. The World Poverty Gap. New University Thought, 5 (1,2), 1967, p. 52-61.

VICKREY, W. S. Congestion Charges and Welfare: Some Answers to Sharp’s Doubts. Journal of Transportation Economics and Policy, 2(1), Jan. 1968, p. 107-118.

VICKREY, W. S. Dupuit, Jules. Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 12, p. 308-311.

VICKREY, W. S. Prices: Pricing Policies. Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 12, 1968, p. 457-464.

VICKREY, W. S. The Problem of Progression. University of Florida Law Review, 20, June, 1968, p. 437-450.

VICKREY, W. S. Externalities in Public Utility Use: The Case of Highway Accidents. Conference on the Economics of Public Output, Universities-National Bureau Committee for Economic Research, April 1968.

VICKREY, W. S. Automobile Accidents, Tort Law, Externalities, and Insurance, an Economist’s Critique. Safety: Law and Contemporary Problems, 33(3), Summer 1968, p. 464-487.

VICKREY, W. S. Congestion Theory and Transport Investment. American Economic Review, 59, May 1969, p. 251-260.

VICKREY, W. S. Current Issues in Transportation. Contemporary Economic Issues, Neil Chamberlain, ed., Irwin, 1969, p. 185-240.

VICKREY, W. S., JOHNSON, B. L. Moral Issues in United States Tax Policy. Social Policy, Nov. 1969, p. 6-26.

VICKREY, W. S. Tax Simplification Through Cumulative Averaging. Law and Contemporary Problems: Tax Simplification and Reform, 34(4), Autumn 1969, p. 736-750.

VICKREY, W. S. The Impact on Land Values of Taxing Buildings. Proceedings of the 62dn National Tax Conference, Boston, Sept. 29-Oct. 3 1969, National Tax Association, Columbus, Ohio, p. 86-89.

VICKREY, W. S. Externalities in Urban Development. Proceedings of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, 1969, p. 3-19.

VICKREY, W. S. Defining Land Values for Taxation Purposes. The Assessment of Land Value, Daniel M. Holland, ed., Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970, p. 25-36.

VICKREY, W. S. The Possibilities of Air Pollution Control Through Various Forms of Effluent Charge. Study of the Social and Economic Effects of Changes in Air Quality, 1969-70, Annual Report, Air Resources Center, Corvallis: Oregon State University, June, 1970, p. 56-70.

VICKREY, W. S. Externalities in Public Utility Use. The Analysis of Public Output, Julius Margolis, ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970, p. 318-335.

VICKREY, W. S. Responsive Pricing of Public Utilities Services. Economics of the Regulated Communications Industry in the Age of Innovation, 1970, Seminar. New England Telephone, p. 61-68.

VICKREY, W. S. Time´s Arrow and Marginal Cost Pricing: A Comment. New Dimensions in Public Utility Pricing, Harry M. Trebing, ed., Michigan State University Public Utilities Studies, East Lansing, 1970, p. 540-554.

VICKREY, W. S. Interrelations between Interest Rates and Depreciation Rates. Utility Regulation During Inflation, J. E. Haring and J. F. Humphrey, eds., Glendale, California: Occidental College, 1971, p. 59-69.

VICKREY, W. S. Utility Pricing During Inflation: Comment, 1971, p. 213-214.

VICKREY, W. S., SOLOW, R. M.  Land Use in a Long Narrow City. Journal of Economic Theory, 3(4), Dec. 1971, p. 430-447.

VICKREY, W. S. Maximum Output or Maximum Welfare? More on the Off-Peak Pricing Problem. Kyklos, 24(2), 1971, p. 305-329.

VICKREY, W. S. Interventions Regarding the Incidence of the Corporate Income Tax. The Shifting Tax Burden: Implications for Capital Investment, Tax Foundation, Inc., 1971, p. 24, 25.

VICKREY, W. S. Intervention Regarding Cumulative Averaging, 1971, p. 54-56.

VICKREY, W. S. Cumulative Averaging After 30 Years. Modern Fiscal Issues: Essays in Honor of Carl S. Shoup, Richard M. Bird and John G. Head, eds., University of Toronto Press, 1972, p. 117-133.

VICKREY, W. S. Statement Regarding Party Planks on Federal Tax Reform. Taxation with Representation, 1972, p. 439-444.

VICKREY, W. S. Airline Overbooking: Some Further Solutions. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 6(3), Sept. 1972, p. 257-270.

VICKREY, W. S. Decreasing Costs, Publicly Administered Prices and Economic Efficiency. The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditures: The PPB System, Joint Economic Committee, 91st Congress, 1972, p. 118-148.

VICKREY, W. S. The Use of Tolls in Controlling Urban Traffic Congestion. Unorthodox Approaches to Urban Transporation: The Emerging Challenge to Conventional Planning, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, 16-17 Nov. 1972, p. 22-37.

VICKREY, W. S. The Economics of Congestion Control in Urban Transportation. The Economics of Environmental Problems, Frank Emerson, ed., Michigan Business Papers, no. 58, University of Michigan, 1973, p. 55-70.

VICKREY, W. S. Pricing, Metering, and Efficiently Using Urban Transportation Facilities. Highway Research Record, No. 436. Price Subsidy Issues in Urban Transportation, Highway Research Board, 1973, p. 36-48.

VICKREY, W. S. Measuring Social and Economic Change: Benefits and Costs of Environmental Pollution: Comments. The Measurement of Economic and Social Performances, Milton Moss, ed., Studies in Income and Wealth, no. 38, New York, London: Columbia University Press for the NBER, 1973, p. 503-508.

VICKREY, W. S. Detailed Pricing of Transportation Services, Proceedings International Symposium, Man and Transport, Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun, 3-7 Sept. 1973, p. 30-41.

VICKREY, W. S. Urban Transportation. Urban and Social Economics in Market and Planned Economies, 2, Housing, Income and Environment, Alan Brown, Joseph A. Licari, and Egon Neuberger, eds., New York: Praeger, 1974, p. 261-279.

VICKREY, W. S. Controlling the Environmental Impact of the Automobile. The Environment: Costs, Conflict and Action, John Cairns, Jr. and Kenneth L. Dickson, eds., New York: Marcell Dekker, 1974, Ch. 5, p. 55-64.

VICKREY, W. S. Two Methods of Alleviating Rush Hour Crowding. Transportation and Engineering Journal, May 1975, p. 395-399.

VICKREY, W. S. Auctions, Markets and Optimum Allocation. Bidding and Auctioning for Procurement and Allocation, Yakov Amihyd, ed., Studies in Game Theory and Mathematical Economics, New York: New York University Press, 1976, p. 13-20.

VICKREY, W. S. Spacing Out Those Gregarious Buses, letter to the New York Times, June, 1974.

VICKREY, W. S. The City as a Firm. The Economics of Public Services, Martin S. Feldstein and Robert F. Inman, eds., Proceedings of a Conference held by the International Economics Association at Turin, London: Macmillan. New York: Wiley, 1977, p. 334-343.

VICKREY, W. S. Economic Rationality and Social Choice. Social Research, 44(4), Winter 1977, p. 691-707.

VICKREY, W. S. Design of Taxes to Minimize Evasion. Tax Losses in Turkey and Preventative measures, Istanbul: Economic and Social Studies Conference Board, 1977, English Supplement, p. 27-37.

VICKREY, W. S. Justice, Equality, and the Economic System. Small Comforts for Hard Times, Michael Mooney and Florian Stuber, eds., New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, p. 27-37.

VICKREY, W. S. Application of Demand Revealing Procedures to International Disputes. Peace Science Society, 28, 1978, p. 97-104.

VICKREY, W. S. Justice, Economics and Jurisprudence. Social Research, 46 (2), 1979, p. 272-281.

VICKREY, W. S. Pricing in the Planning of Transportation Facilities. Transportation Research Report, 731, Transportation Research Board. Washington: National Academy of Sciences, 1979, p. 37-41.

VICKREY, W. S. Alternatives to the International Tax Credit. US Taxation and Developing Countries, Robert Kellaawell, ed., Columbia University Center for Law and Economic Studies, New York: Columbia University Press, 1980, p. 153-168.

VICKREY, W. S. Actual and Potential Pricing Policies under Public and Private Operation. Public and Private Enterprise in a Mixed Economy, Will J. Baumol, ed., London: Macmillan, 1980, p. 286-296.

VICKREY, W. S. Optimal Transit Subsidy Policy. Transportation, 9 (4), Dec. 1980, p. 389-409.

VICKREY, W. S. Agenda Setting and Social Choice. Public Transfers ans Some Private Alternatives During the Recession, Martin Pfaff, Ed., Schriften des Internationalen Institute fur Empirische Sozialokonomie, Band 7 (II), Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1983, p. 133-140.

VICKREY, W. S. The Fallacy of Using Long Run Cost for Peak-Load Pricing. Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 1985, p. 1331-1334.

VICKREY, W. S. The Need for a Direct Anti-Inflation Program. Incentives Based Incomes Policies, David C. Colander, ed., Ballinger, 1986, p. 27-34.

VICKREY, W. S. Commentary: Some Neglected Opportunities for User Charges. Research in Urban Policy, vol. 2, p. 127-138.

VICKREY, W. S. Budget-Smudget: Why Balance What, How, and When? Atlantic Economic Journal, 14(3), Sept. 1986, p. 6-13.

VICKREY, W. S. Carl S. Shoup. The New Palgrave, vol. IV. Macmillan, 1987, Johns Hopkins, p. 326-327.

VICKREY, W. S. Progressive and Regressive Taxation, 1987, vol. III, p. 1021-1025.

VICKREY, W. S. Marginal and Average Cot Pricing, 1987, vol. III, p. 311-318.

VICKREY, W. S. The Effect of the Tax System on the Impact of Government Debt. Revista di Politica Economica, July-Aug., 1990, p. 233-239.

VICKREY, W. S. The Corporate Income Tax and How to Get Rid of It. Retrospective on Public Finance, Loraine Eden, ed., Duke University Press, 1991, p. 118-132.

VICKREY, W. S. Economic Solutions and Political Hurdles: An Economist’s Utopia, the P.K. Seidman Foundation, Memphis, 1992, p. vi, 21.

VICKREY, W. S. Making New York City Work. Challenges of the Changing Economy of New York City, 1992, Baruch College: New York City Council on Economic Education, p. 3-11.

VICKREY, W. S. Theoretical and Practical Possibilities and Limitations of a Market Mechanism Approach to Air Pollution Control. Land Economics, 68(1), Feb. 1992, p. 1-6.

VICKREY, W. S. An Updated Agenda for Progressive Taxation. Papers and Proceedings, American Economic Association, March 1992, p. 257-262.

VICKREY, W. S. Meaningfully Defining Deficits and Debt, 1992, p. 305-310.

VICKREY, W. S. Chock-Full Employment without Increased Inflation: A Proposal for Marketable Markup Warrants, 1992, p. 341-345.

VICKREY, W. S. Efficient Pricing of Electric Power Services: Some Innovative Solutions. Resources and Energy, 14, 1992, p. 157-174.

VICKREY, W. S. The Other Side of the Coin, prepared for an address accepting the Seidman Award, 24 Sept. 1992.

VICKREY, W. S. Today’s Task for Economists. American Economic Review, March, 1993, p. 1-10.

VICKREY, W. S. Presidential Address to the American Economic Association, 15 Oct. 1992.

VICKREY, W. S. My Innovative Failures in Economics. Atlantic Economic Journal, March, 1993, p. 1-9.

VICKREY, W. S. Disarmament, Unemployment, Budgets, and Inflation. Journal of Asian Economics, 4 (1), 1993, p. 1-4.

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William Spencer Vickrey